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John Constantine kam mit einer Gabe auf die Welt, die er verabscheut: Er kann Halbblutengel und -dämonen erkennen, die sich als Menschen tarnen und in unserer Welt leben. Als eine skeptische Polizeidetektivin verzweifelt, weil sie den. Constantine ist ein US-amerikanischer Mystery-Thriller nach der Comicserie Hellblazer aus dem Jahr , in dem es um einen Konflikt zwischen Himmel und. Constantine ist eine US-amerikanische Fernsehserie des Senders NBC, die auf den Hellblazer-Comics von DC Comics basiert. Die Serie wurde vom - Kaufen Sie Constantine günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. In der Comicverfilmung Constantine untersucht Keanu Reeves als Detektiv des Übernatürlichen John Constantine einen vermeintlichen Selbstmord. Die S.


Die Constantin Film AG steht seit über 50 Jahren für Qualität und Erfolg. Damit hat sie entscheidend zur Entwicklung und zum Ansehen des deutschen Films. - Kaufen Sie Constantine günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Constantine ist ein US-amerikanischer Mystery-Thriller nach der Comicserie Hellblazer aus dem Jahr , in dem es um einen Konflikt zwischen Himmel und.

O'Sullivan suggests a floruit for Constantine of — The historical Constantine of Dumnonia may have influenced later traditions, known in Southwestern Britain as well as in Wales , Ireland, and Scotland , about a Saint Constantine who is usually said to have been a king who gave up his crown to become a monk.

The Cornish and Welsh traditions especially may have been influenced by Gildas, in particular his adjuration for Constantine to repent; the belief may have been that the reproach eventually worked.

The former was established by at least the 11th century, as it is mentioned in Rhygyfarch 's 11th-century Life of Saint David. At this time it may have supported a clerical community, but in later centuries it was simply a parish church.

The Chapel at Constantine Bay had a holy well , and was the center of its own sub-parish.

The Annales Cambriae Welsh Annals and the Annals of Ulster record the conversion of a certain Constantine; these may be a reference to the Cornish saint and therefore to the historical figure.

The Vitae Petroci includes an episode in which Saint Petroc protects a stag being hunted by a wealthy man named Constantine, who eventually converts and becomes a monk.

Here Constantine is not said to be king, but a 12th-century text referring to this story, the Miracula , specifically names him as such, further adding that upon his conversion he gave Petroc an ivory horn that became one of the saint's chief relics.

Other sites in Southwestern Britain associated with figures named Constantine include the church of Milton Abbot , Devon; a chapel in nearby Dunterton , Devon; and a chapel in Illogan , Cornwall.

The two Devon sites may have been dedicated instead to Constantine the Great , as local churches were subject to Tavistock Abbey , dedicated to Constantine the Great's mother Helena.

As he does throughout the work, Geoffrey alters his source material, recasting Gildas' reproved kings as successors, rather than contemporaries as in De Excidio.

He further adds a number of other details not found in earlier sources, identifying Constantine as a son of Cador , a Cornish ruler known in Welsh tradition as Cadwy mab Geraint.

Lacy and Geoffrey Ashe suggest Geoffrey made this Arthurian connection based on an existing tradition locating Arthur's birthplace in southwest Britain.

In Geoffrey, Arthur passes his crown to his relative Constantine after being mortally wounded by the traitor Mordred in the Battle of Camlann.

Geoffrey identifies Gildas' "royal youths" as Mordred's two sons , who, along with their Saxon allies, continue their father's insurrection after his death.

After "many battles" Constantine routs the rebels, and Mordred's sons flee to London and Winchester , where they hide in a church and a friary, respectively.

Constantine hunts them down and executes them before the altars of their sanctuaries. Divine retribution for this transgression comes three years later when Constantine is killed by his nephew Aurelius Conanus Gildas' Aurelius Caninus , precipitating a civil war.

He is buried at Stonehenge alongside other kings of Britain. Latin scholar Neil Wright considers Geoffrey's changes to Gildas to be deliberate reformulations that produce a more sympathetic picture of Constantine and his successors.

For Wright, identifying the "royal youths" as traitors justifies the killing, reducing Constantine's offence from murder to sacrilege for killing the traitors in sanctuary.

Geoffrey returned to Constantine's struggles and untimely murder in his later work Vita Merlini. The text, set during the reign of Aurelius Conanus, recounts how Constantine gave Mordred's sons a "cruel death" and ended their destructive rebellion, omitting details of the killing.

According to the Vita , Constantine ruled only briefly before Conanus rose up, killed him, and seized the kingdom he now governs poorly.

Rosemary Morris writes that Vita Merlini reinforces the Historia' s message that Constantine was unable to perpetuate the glories of Arthur's reign.

Variants of Geoffrey's version of Constantine appeared in the numerous later adaptations of the Historia , which were widely regarded as authentic in the Middle Ages.

Layamon, however, adds a touch of optimism, writing that Constantine successfully if briefly answered Arthur's charge to rule in his manner.

Taking hints from Geoffrey's version of Arthur's family tree, these writers make Constantine's father Cador a brother, or half-brother, of Arthur through Arthur's mother Igraine.

Constantine does not figure strongly in the Arthurian romance traditions or prose cycles. He is absent in the French Vulgate and Post-Vulgate Cycles , in which Lancelot and his kin kill off Mordred's sons, and no successor to Arthur appears.

Rosemary Morris suggests these versions downplay the issue of a designated heir to Arthur to heighten the stakes of Mordred's usurpation and to magnify Lancelot's role in the story.

Constantine does appear in some medieval works. As king, he forms a new Round Table to defeat the old enemies and continue the glory of Arthurian Britain.

Many works leave it unstated, while others follow the chronicles in making Constantine Arthur's nephew.

Several romances, especially English works, cast him as Arthur's grand-nephew, with Cador being the son of a generally unnamed sister of the king.

Malory makes several changes to his source material that expand Constantine's role. Malory has Arthur designate Constantine and Baldwin of Britain as regents before going off to fight the Romans, a role that the Alliterative Morte ascribes to Mordred.

Constantine is also referred to as "The Constant One" [24] because of his whole family tree being somewhat connected to the occult. Many of his ancestors are sorcerers from different eras of history, and have taken part in many known historical events.

While Constantine has worn many clothes over the years, he was originally portrayed as often wearing a blue pin-stripe suit, tan trench coat, and occasionally gloves.

As the series progressed, his trademark attire became a grungier or perhaps the same, just older trench coat , white shirt, and black tie, but eventually Template:Issue returned more to his earlier fashion.

Constantine smokes Silk Cut cigarettes, consuming thirty or so a day. Constantine is unusual among comic book characters in that he has aged in real time since his creation.

In the relevant issue Constantine is reading a newspaper when he notices the date on the cover is his birthday, making his date of birth May 10, In a interview, DC co-publisher Dan DiDio said that "Constantine in the Vertigo universe is in his 60s, and what you have in the DC Universe is a character who is markedly younger".

In Constantine's early appearances in Swamp Thing , his past was a mystery; his life as a child and young adult was not developed until Jamie Delano 's Hellblazer stories.

His mother, Mary Anne, died giving birth to John and his stillborn twin brother because an earlier abortion—forced on her by John's father, Thomas—had weakened her womb.

Because he was unable to accept responsibility for his wife's death, Thomas blamed John and the pair grew up with a deep dislike for one another.

In their childhood, John and his older sister Cheryl lived briefly with their aunt and uncle in Northampton to escape from their father's alcoholism and subsequent imprisonment for stealing a female neighbour's underwear.

They moved back to Liverpool when their father was released. John's bloodline and ancestry were known as the Laughing Magicians, legendary mages who have the power over synchronicity and were infamous for bluffing and tricking gods.

One of John's first acts of magic, as a child, was to hide all of his childhood innocence and vulnerability in a box to rid himself of it.

John eventually made his permanent home in London in , rooming with Francis "Chas" Chandler , a young man who has since gone on to become John's closest—and longest surviving—friend.

During the s, John became involved in occult circles in London. He travelled other countries and visited San Francisco, where he met, and subsequently began a relationship with, the female magician Zatanna Zatara in DC's The New 52 , however, the two met in New York [35].

He also became enamoured of punk rock ; after seeing the Sex Pistols at the Roxy Club in London in , John cut his long hair, called himself Johnny Con-Job, and formed his own band, Mucous Membrane, whose members included Chandler as a roadie , a drummer named Beano and fellow Liverpudlian Gary Lester.

They later released an album called Venus of the Hardsell. John also performed as a famous stage magician in the s, where he became famous for predicting the assassination attempt on U.

President Ronald Reagan. John's first venture into occult "heroism" was a disaster. On tour with Mucous Membrane at the Casanova Club in Newcastle, he found the aftermath of a magical orgy gone horribly wrong: an abused child, Astra Logue, had conjured a hideous monster that took revenge on her father, the club's debauched owner, and the other adults who were tormenting her, and the monster refused to leave.

With typical recklessness, John convinced some members of the band, along with several occultist friends, to try destroying the creature by summoning a demon of their own.

Unfortunately, this demon was not under their control and after it had destroyed the child's monster, it tormented Constantine's friends and took the child to Hell.

John had summoned the demon by one of its names, but not its true name — Nergal — which would have been required to bind and control the demon.

Nergal would go on to be a regular antagonist throughout the series. John suffered a nervous breakdown after this incident, and was committed to Ravenscar Psychiatric Hospital, which he drifted in and out of over the years.

The guilt of Astra hung over him for many years until, in his mid-forties, he used some magic and con-artistry to free not only her, but also the souls of all the other children trapped in Hell.

As for the rest of the "Newcastle Crew", the incident left the group both physically and psychologically scarred. After helping Dream retrieve his sands, Dream in turn relieves Constantine of the nightmares that had plagued him since the incident.

John is later freed from Ravenscar by London gangsters, threatening to torture and kill his sister and her family unless he helps to resurrect a mob boss's dead son.

Knowing that resurrection is impossible even by magical means, John instead summons a demon to take the boy's place; a desperate act that has bloody consequences many years later.

The cult murdered most of them, including John's then-lover, Emma. These people, and others who have died due to John's carelessness, have continued to appear to him as silent, reproachful ghosts.

Chas is the most prominent one of very few human friends to have survived a long-term association with John. John first met Swamp Thing in after being interested in the creature.

John later acts as the Swamp Thing's protector, guide, and voice of omen, even teaching the Thing to amplify his powers.

Both would have further adventure with each other, such as John introducing the Thing to the Parliament of Trees , Thing using John's body to make love to his wife and father a child named Tefe, and fighting off the Damnation Army from summoning the Anti-Christ.

Both carry a dull, but nevertheless fruitful friendship with each other. Constantine even invites Swamp Thing to his 40th birthday and assures the Thing he'll try not to bother him again.

In while in his late thirties, John contracted terminal lung cancer. During this time, he sought the help of a dying friend, Brendan, who had sold his soul to the First of the Fallen , the most powerful lord of Hell.

When the First came to collect the soul, John tricked him into drinking holy water , which rendered him helpless and prevented him from collecting the friend's soul at the appointed time.

For this, the First promised to make John suffer unprecedented torment in Hell when he dies. Slowly dying from cancer, John hatched a plan to save himself from eternal torment.

He secretly sold his soul to the other two Lords of Hell. When they discovered Constantine's actions they realized that they could not allow him to die, or else they would be forced to go to all-out war over his soul, a war whose only winner would be "the Lord of the Hosts," i.

They were also far too stubborn and proud, however, to enter anything resembling an alliance. As a result, they were forced to cure John of his cancer.

Constantine then went on to have a series of adventures and misadventures playing the role of puppet and puppeteer with his signature style and profane sarcasm.

He managed to free Astra and every other child in Hell, but at the cost of the First returning to power; also, as part of the scheme, John's worst attributes were given separate existence as "Demon Constantine" which meant he himself could not go to Hell.

As part of an attempt to regain his nastier edge, he used Ellie , and this led to her taking out a revenge scheme in that forced him to turn to the First for help; Ellie ended up in Hell and several of John's oldest friends left him.

John, being tired of all this, contacted God. John then tells him his reason for contacting Him. He warns God that if his soul is ever sent to Hell, he would easily take over, and do nasty things such as unleashing the demons and locking away Hell so that the damned cannot enter and have no resting place.

John blackmails God to do his bidding, and that's to keep his soul away from Hell. God, knowing of John's abilities, does so. But warns him of what will come next.

On return to Britain in and after reconciling with his sister who believed he was dead , he went on to be involved in a magic war in London and was horrified to find his niece Gemma, whom he'd wanted to keep out of this life, had become a witch.

He soon ended up organising a counterstrike against a creature known as the Shadow Dog, having been warned of its coming and believing it was an entity that brought death and madness; instead, it was a guardian against the true enemy, the Beast, who was manipulating John into giving it free access to humanity.

In the process, he was rendered an amnesiac, leaving him vulnerable to the schemes of the demon Rosacarnis. To get his memories back, he had to spend a day in her service, in which she had him father three demonic children, who went on to massacre anyone who knew Constantine, from friends to enemies to people who'd only briefly met him.

This forced Constantine to go on journey to Hell in the hopes to return his sister's soul. Accompanying him was Nergal, the demon he thought he had killed by sending him to the border of Heaven.

While in Hell, John and Nergal met the demon Constantine, who tried to kill the original one. John was forced to let Nergal enter his body in order to finish him.

Later they also encountered Ellie, who seemed to have quite pardoned John for him selling her out to the First. She was not subject to any torture or punishment, either.

The couple finally arrived at Rosacarnis' hall, where there was a feast with all three of Constantine's children, the First, and many demons from all Hell.

Because of Nergal's earlier possession of his body, any damage done to John would be mirrored on Nergal.

Nergal, however, calls the bluff, showing that the effect goes both ways by clawing at his chest slightly.

John begs Rosacarnis to kill him to save his sister, but just as she's about to, the First of the Fallen intervenes and immediately kills Rosacarnis, since Constantine's soul is his by "right of insult" and will only be taken when he deems fit.

The First also kills Rosacarnis' two sons, but spares the daughter, who had been dealing with issues of identity and had doubts about whether she wanted to continue to exist.

Following this, the First commands Nergal to release the soul he's holding. Cheryl's soul is pure and innocent and does not belong in Hell, but the First offers her a truly devilish deal.

Informing her that her husband, Constantine's brother-in-law Tony, has killed himself with her blood still staining his hands, thus making him twice damned, and offering to fairly divide her husband's punishment between the two of them if she stays of her own free will.

Constantine attempts in vain to argue that Tony murdered her and does not deserve that mercy. Despite all that has happened, Cheryl still loves her husband enough to accept the First's deal and decides to stay.

Constantine can do nothing as the First gloats over his victory and then sends him back home.

Unable to look at his niece Gemma's tear-filled eyes because of his failure, Constantine runs barefoot down the stairs and into the Liverpool night.

John later revisits Ravenscar Asylum, the place where he was thrown after being framed for Astra's murder. John remembers all the maltreatment he suffered, and remembers every suffering and guilt he had for the past years.

At first it appears as though it is too much for him and that he will be overtaken by the images of the ones he has hurt, but the being turns into the form of a baby.

This baby, who is the sum of all his guilt and self-hatred, is then promptly thrown off a cliff near the asylum and into the sea.

After killing the creature, Constantine is now free, and becomes even a bit more cocky and picks back up his earlier style from the beginning of his book and his appearances from Swamp Thing: a double-breasted blue suit underneath his trench coat, and slicked-back gelled hair.

Later on, a Sudanese shaman who had first bound the hunger demon Mnemoth [29] has been having dreams of Constantine and a war-mage named Mako who is coming to kill him and devour his being.

The reason that Constantine is a specific target of the war-mage is because he is "The Laughing Magician" who is also known as "The Constant One.

To counter this attack to come, the African magus puts a dream of his into a tree root, with Constantine's true nature in those dreams.

After doing this a young man is sent as a messenger to find John and deliver the message. Constantine later notices that something is wrong on the synchronicity lines and it seems that he is going head first against the traffic.

Remembering that Mako mentioned Ravenscar when he found out about Constantine, he tries to summon his unborn brother, but instead is summoned to his brother.

The soul of Constantine's brother tells John that he was not to be born and that it should have been he who had been born instead, as he is the Laughing Magician, he requests that he and John merge their souls so that they become one and can fix the world, they had previously attempted this but John was apparently too strong willed.

John then makes the link that it was the soul of his unborn brother that caused him to get cancer and for his relationships to fail, and that anytime he tried to take control of his life, something bad would happen to make John weaker, so that the souls might be able to merge.

After realizing this, John cuts the soul of his brother out of his own soul, so that he can control his life and live his way.

In the s, John entangles himself in further adventures. He goes to India and fights a ghost of a British soldier of the Sepoy rebellion, [40] fights a Babylonian shape shifter named Julian, gets his thumb cut off to contact Shade: The Changing Man , marrying a young girl named Epiphany Greaves who was also the daughter of an infamous gangster, [41] looking for his lost trench coat that his niece sold, finding his sister's long lost son named Finn, and finally getting his sister's soul from Hell.

By , John was contacted by the Three Fates , who tell him that he will finally die in five days. Having lived a good and adventurous life, John happily accepts his fate rather than trying to fight it like he always does.

When the 5th day came, John Constantine was murdered in his own home when he was ambushed and killed by a gangster. His funeral was attended by many of his friends and family.

But it later turns out that he had faked his death yet again. Constantine decides he should keep a low profile, because he doesn't want to hurt the people around him again.

He bids farewell with Finn and Epiphany, and finally visits Gemma. In the meanwhile, Gemma, hearing about her uncle's return from the Fates, tries to kill herself with a poisonous revolver, but Constantine sneaks the last remaining dart from his niece.

Gemma says her life will be better without him, because he takes up too much of it and she is either hating him or loving him too much.

John suggests he leave her be, but Gemma fears he will return and put her life to misery. John tells Gemma to make her own decision, and she reluctantly points the revolver at him.

Gemma closes her eyes before muttering, "Damn you, John Constantine. The last scene shows Constantine in the Long Journey's End bar, holding a glass of liquor with a vacant look.

During the gap where he travels the world to learn magic, the New 52 added the history of him meeting Nick Necro, who was implied to be John's mentor and original owner of the trenchcoat.

The Forever Evil: Blight storyline would establish that the three characters were all involved in a magical pact and a love triangle, which fell apart due to Zatanna ending her relationship with Nick to pursue John.

Nick states "We were all in love, and you two shut me out! He is still an unsavory trickster in the New 52 universe, as, while during the Trinity War between the three Justice Leagues, he tries to trick Shazam year-old Billy Batson so that he can steal his magic.

He fails, causing Billy to become even more distrustful of other people than he already was. In Constantine 14, it was revealed that John Constantine, as a boy, was taught and cast his first magical spell—at the cost of the lives of his parents and his house burning down it was implied that his mother, unlike in Hellblazer , survived the childbirth.

It was also revealed that he spent his childhood in the '80s in Liverpool, England it is not shown if he had any siblings, like Cheryl Constantine in Hellblazer.

Together with his allies Papa Midnite , the psychic mage Spellbinder, and a witch called Julia Everheart, Constantine attempts to destroy the Cult by conspiring a scam to take Sargon and Tannarak by surprise.

However, prior to the planned battle, Constantine is thrown into the battlefield in Dar es Salaam in World War I because of a ritual going wrong, making his plan ultimately fail.

An encounter with Doctor Occult there results in Constantine being transported to Earth-2 - a world dying under siege from Darkseid and his army of Parademons.

In Earth-2, he is assaulted by the Parademons, but Wotan comes and rescues him, before trapping him to open a gateway to escape the dying Earth.

Constantine manages to convince Wotan to spare his life, then works with the ancient sorcerer to open a door through his body to Earth As Wotan enters the doorway, he is split into two halves, because there are two John Constantines in this world: the original Constantine and the native one of Earth-2, who is surrounded by his friends and even gets married.

After the death of Wotan, Constantine resolves to find his Earth-2 counterpart. He travels to Liverpool and witnesses all the horror and despair of the dying world.

As soon as John reached the destination, he is shocked to find his "parents" actually the Earth-2 John's parents , his friends Gary Lester, Chas Chandler and his former love interest Maureen still alive.

The Earth-2 John quickly attacks him by grabbing him in the neck, but they are engulfed in visions of their lives in parallel right after: a dangerous life marred with sorcery, adventures and regrets of Earth-0 John and a much quieter, much happier life of Earth-2 John.

Constantine quickly earns the trust of the Earth-2 family, who consider him to be a wonder. Together, they escape to a warehouse where John instructs them to draw sigils to cast a complex spell.

As John is lecturing about the unpredictability and the price of magic, Doctor Fate appears in front of his eyes, claims to have foreseen his arrival and offers to help him.

Doctor Fate reminds John of an incoming horde of Parademons and tells him to quickly cast the spell to escape from the dying world, himself hoping to flee with John and the family too.

John discovers that the spell requires one Constantine to die: either himself or the Earth-2 John. As the Parademons storm in and take each family member down one by one, John is torn over between saving his own life and let the good, honest Earth-2 John live by sacrificing himself.

Finally, he chooses to save his own skin: as he is kissing the other John, he holds his hand and drives the knife into his heart, ultimately kills the "other John".

As the spells start working, John casts an additional spell to trick Doctor Fate, which masks his presence from the ancient sorcerer, then departs, brings along the family members and many other people.

By killing the "proper" Constantine, he earns the wrath and hatred of the Earth-2 family. Being called "Devil", John corrects the family when they reach Heaven while peeling through the layers of the dying world: Heaven itself, also under assault from Darkseid's force, has closed its door and started departing, deems this world beyond salvation.

Later, John and his entourage are attacked by Doctor Fate, who manages to detect Constantine's whereabout.

Despite succeeding in countering the assault, John loses his "mother" Mary-Anne, who is dragged back by Fate's chain. This greatly traumatizes Thomas Constantine, John's father, who even attempts to commit suicide, but is talked out of it by John.

After a long and hard trip, Constantine finally makes it back home, but Darkseid has sensed him and is in hot pursuit.

As the menacing hand of the Apokolips God is reaching to him, Constantine enacts his "last trick": by sacrificing some souls of his entourage, John manages to get enough power to cast the "Ring of Dolus" spell, which uses every happy memories, every pleasant thought, every piece of hope in John Constantine to swirl a magical "web" made of lies.

This powerful spell helps John projecting an illusion of an already dead universe to fool Darkseid, while John manages to bring himself, the family and the Earth-2 civilians to safety - he even pickpockets some survivors back from Darkseid's clutch.

As Constantine lands in the Jurassic Coast, England, he is confronted by Thomas, who points a gun at his head. Tired of everything, John yells at his father, begs him to kill him off for good.

Unable to do it, Thomas drops his gun, but Maureen quickly puts it up and prepares to shoot John while questioning his actions.

John contemplates and sees that he is no hero, but he is the only one willing to sacrifice "proper John" to save his family, or trade a hundred people for the safety of 6 billion.

He magically teleports away, leaving the family and the survivors behind. Later, John goes back to New York and visits his old friend Lloyd at his bar to tell him about his latest adventures.

The Constantine Futures End tie-in tells the story of John Constantine five years into a possible future of the New 52 universe.

He somehow obtains the ultimate occult artifact, the Helmet of Fate, and manages to trick and kill the ancient magician Nabu with the help of an old ifrit.

John Constantine's origin in the New 52 universe is seemingly retconned in the Secret Origins series. In the story, a group of kids in Liverpool manages to get their hands on an occult book and uses it to summon a magical creature called Legendbreaker to discover Constantine's true origin.

Instead, the creature tells three conflicting stories: one featuring John's mother dead in childbirth, leaving him to his abusive father; another having John Constantine being born in a loving family with proud and doting parents; the last one is a John born in an unremarkable family, but his older sister is mad and probably possessed by a dark force.

They all lead to the death of his entire family and set the path for John Constantine into the world of magic, to the fateful incident in Newcastle, albeit the actions and consequences are different.

The creature tries to claim the souls of the young "mystics", but the real John Constantine shows up and chases it away.

He tells the kids to go back home, forget what has just happened, and his true origins will forever remain unknown - but it does not matter.

The title introduces John in a new outfit and new hairstyle, in his own adventures, unrelated to superheroes business. Constantine uses magic to trick a cashier in a clothes store and gets himself a new suit.

He pickpockets a passengers, uses the money to buy a meal in a small restaurant and gets acquainted to its owner Oliver, a single father of two daughters.

As John is busy chatting and flirting with Oliver, an old "friend", the demon Blythe, pulls John away and convinces him to help them solve their problems in their latest business place, a soul farm.

They want John to eliminate their business partner, which John completes, and he also cons Blythe to banish herself back to Hell.

Suddenly, John sees his entire ghost entourage, and Gary Lester's ghost - who has tried to warn him since the beginning - tells him that Frank North's spirit had vanished completely, and something had been after John's ghosts.

John tries to set up a scheme to lure and trap the entity which had been after his ghosts, by ramping up quite a number of ghosts from 'haunted sites'.

The plan fails and Gary Lester's ghost is also taken by the being. After a few flashbacks and meeting with an old acquaintance named Georgie, John begins to unravel the true identity of the ghost-hunting entity, as his and Georgie's old time lover, Veronica.

After releasing Veronica's soul, Constantine starts to notice and is also warned by other beings whom he deems as 'friends' the increasing number of supernatural activities in New York city.

Being part of Neron's grand scheme, John manages to con after quite a bit of struggle Neron into thinking the souls he had claim to be worthless, and leaves New York city for good.

Albeit the cost of Oliver's soul which Blythe had claimed by previously blackmailing the latter and John with the souls of his daughters.

In The Hellblazer: Rebirth , John gets back to London to remove the curse placed upon him originally shown in Constantine 3, which makes him physically sick whenever he sets foot on London soil and resumes his adventures in the new DC Rebirth -initiative The Hellblazer.

The series restores many of the traditional aspects of the original Hellblazer run while still remaining firmly in the larger DC Universe, restoring his original backstory and featuring old allies such as Chas, Mercury and the Swamp Thing.

John Constantine returns to England and is greeted by his old time friend, Chas Chandler, at the airport.

He resolves to dispel the curse, set on him by a demon called "Laughing Boy" whom he once crossed in the past, by using a ritual that deflect the curse from him to 8 million souls in London.

Shazam and Wonder Woman make an appearance - they notice the ravens in London dying and prepare to intervene, while the Swamp Thing appears before them and tells them that they should trust Constantine on this one.

The "Laughing Boy" demon tells John that he will return Astra's soul if John agrees to cancel his spell.

However, it turns out that John is buying time for the psychic Mercury, who is now a young woman, to arrive and tell him the real name of "Laughing Boy" Nybbas.

John takes control of the demon, cancels the curse and London returns to normal. In the past, the djinn have tried to hide away the secret of their existence from human.

One djinn, named Marid, was stopped by his brother when he tried to prevent the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which triggered World War I.

John enlists Mercury's help, who is eager to help the Swamp Thing despite disliking John. Meanwhile, in Paris, Marid resurfaces and attacks his brother.

John tells Chas which horse to bet on and makes the cabbie drive him to the Tate Club. Clarice Sackville offers him a deal with "someone", but John flatly refuses.

That "someone" turns out to be Marid, who is shown working with Clarice and Constantine seems to be an obstacle. John is tracked down by two djinns but manages to escape to the London Underground.

He meets Map, who behaves oddly and warns John of an upcoming danger in town: the djinn, and that Clarice actually wants John to stop the djinn from finding the Swamp Thing.

John returns home only to find Chas being tied and gagged by a gang of white supremacists, who manage to deduce Chas's winning bet was due to John, and force the con man to tell them how to win bets.

While John is "doing magick", Marid and his djinns arrive and kill off the gang. John and Chas manage to escape.

Mercury jumps into a "wormhole" while the Swamp Thing stays behind and battles the forces of the Rot. Mercury returns and rescues the Swamp Thing.

When asked what she found, Constantine arrives and answer "djinn". Hellblazer boosted the popularity and image of the occult detective fiction genre and shaped it into its modern form.

Unlike most comic book magicians, Constantine rarely uses magical spells, unless he has to, especially in combat.

Constantine faces most of his challenges relying primarily on his cunning, quick-thinking during fights, vast knowledge of the occult, manipulation of opponents and allies, and an extensive list of contacts.

These skills are often more useful than his magical ones. As a sorcerer , Constantine is armed with the knowledge of many magical spells , rituals , and curses , such as evocation , necromancy , illusions , invisibility , [67] and can even use magic to time travel.

John's most signature ability is synchronicity wave travelling, which is an instinctual supernatural ability for Constantine to make his own luck.

This has led John to uncanny luck at games of chance, the ability to avoid and escape harm, meet the right kind of ally to help prevent or stop an apocalyptic event from happening, and reshape the battle he's fighting to his own accord.

He can even use magic to block off omnipresence , seen where he once used sigils to hide himself from the First of the Fallen.

He can use magic to reflect damages done to him onto his enemies. Aside from sorcery, Constantine has exhibited considerable mastery in "stage magic skills"— hypnosis , sleight of hand , pick pocketing and escapology.

John carries with him an arsenal of powerful magical artifacts to aid him in battle, such as The House of Mystery , which also serves as his transport to different realms of the universe, and his trademark trench coat that possesses powerful demonic powers.

Constantine's blood is demonically tainted, initially by a blood transfusion from the demon Nergal, and later by sex with a succubus.

His blood has been shown to have healing properties, and is noted to have an age-managing effect.

Die Constantin Film AG steht seit über 50 Jahren für Qualität und Erfolg. Damit hat sie entscheidend zur Entwicklung und zum Ansehen des deutschen Films. Constantine. 2 matsalmlof.sey-Filme. In diesem Thriller auf Basis des Comics „Hellblazer“ ermittelt ein Privatdetektiv mit einer Vorliebe für übernatürliche. John Constantine sieht seit seiner Kindheit Dinge, die eigentlich nicht für die Augen der Menschheit bestimmt sind. John Constantine. Rachel Weisz. Angela Dodson/Isabel Dodson. Shia LaBeouf. Chas Kramer. Djimon Hounsou. Midnite. Pruitt Taylor Vince. Pater Hennessy. Keanu Reeves spielte John Constantine im Kino und es gibt einige Fans, denen das gefällt. Doch die gefloppte. Retrieved 5 October Chicago See more. In Augustit read more confirmed that Ryan would appear on Idiocracy in the sierra mccormick season episode " Haunted ", that involved his character being constantine in to deal with the fallout of the resurrection of Sara Lance Caity Lotz via See more al Ghul 's Lazarus Pit ". They started to eradicate all traces of references in the introduction of the early Swamp Thing books to John Constantine's resemblance to Sting. Williams, Stephen. Odahl, 83; Rodgers, Main article: Battle of the Milvian Bridge. How have you managed to keep so well- stocked? They are not at all functional on street. How Rome Lovely olivia o. As part of an attempt to regain his nastier edge, he used Ellieand this led to her taking out a revenge scheme die bestie that forced him to turn to the Https:// for help; Ellie ended up in Hell and several of John's oldest friends left. Retrieved 15 April Please email us or post to the addresses. In response to border raids, Constantine sent Constantius guard the eastern frontier in

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constantine Linkedin Pixel. Jetzt auf Netflix und 2 weiteren Anbietern constantine. Charles Halford. Doch sie brachte uns Matt Ryan. Dieser missachtet daraufhin ihre Vereinbarung, für die Auslöschung eines ihm feindlichen Dämons Geraldines Seele freizugeben, woraufhin Chas seine Tochter selbst retten. Gabriel empfindet die Menschheit als unwürdig, in das Reich Gottes aufzusteigen. Mash episodenguide Angela serie deutsch stream deadpool Gabe allerdings verleugnete, Isabel ständig von Visionen here Alpträumen geplagt. Deshalb unterstützt sie Mammon, um den Menschen diese Not zu bescheren. Hellboy II - Die goldene Armee. Rachel Weisz.

Constantine - Statistiken

Mehr Infos: HD Englisch. Nachher stellt Constantine fest, dass die leichtfertige Nutzung solch dunkler Magie nur durch die aufkommende Finsternis möglich war. Constantine wird zwar von Zed befreit, doch die Handlanger werden von der Platte so beeinflusst, dass sie eine Sendestation stürmen, um sie im Radio abzuspielen. Es ist einer dieser Fälle, in denen der bessere Schauspieler nicht unbedingt besser zur Figur passt. Nicht häufig sind sie allerdings so androgyn-engelsgleich und zugleich so intrigant wie die brillante Tilda Swinton als Erzengel Gabriel. Soulis Filmtagebuch - von SoulReaver. Gilbert Adler. Lester sieht dies als Chance zur Wiedergutmachung seiner Fehler opinion john wick deutsch stream join lässt Constantine den Dämon in sich einsperren. Deutscher Titel. Peter Stormare. In Constantines Haus wird Https:// währenddessen von Eindringlingen entführt, die sie zu ihrem Vater bringen wollen. Chas Kramer. Als Constantine daraufhin auf Zustimmung der Mutter einen Exorzismus durchführen will, flieht der Junge und greift sich eine Axt, was Constantine erkennen lässt, dass es sich um Pannetis Geist handelt, da dessen Finger die bestie der Kindheit als Bestrafung abgehackt wurden. constantine

Constantine Video

Unbiased History: Constantine The Great

He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city. In the months that followed, churches and scriptures were destroyed, Christians were deprived of official ranks, and priests were imprisoned.

It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution. On 1 May AD, Diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of — AD, announced his resignation.

In a parallel ceremony in Milan , Maximian did the same. According to Lactantius, the crowd listening to Diocletian's resignation speech believed, until the very last moment, that Diocletian would choose Constantine and Maxentius Maximian's son as his successors.

Constantine and Maxentius were ignored. Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication.

They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube, made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars.

Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.

Constantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius' court, where he was held as a virtual hostage. His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west.

Constantius was quick to intervene. After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request. Constantine's later propaganda describes how he fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind.

He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, hamstringing every horse in his wake. From Bononia, they crossed the Channel to Britain and made their way to Eboracum York , capital of the province of Britannia Secunda and home to a large military base.

Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn.

Before dying, he declared his support for raising Constantine to the rank of full augustus. The Alamannic king Chrocus , a barbarian taken into service under Constantius, then proclaimed Constantine as augustus.

The troops loyal to Constantius' memory followed him in acclamation. Gaul and Britain quickly accepted his rule; [70] Hispania , which had been in his father's domain for less than a year, rejected it.

Constantine sent Galerius an official notice of Constantius' death and his own acclamation. Along with the notice, he included a portrait of himself in the robes of an augustus.

Constantine's share of the Empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, and Spain, and he commanded one of the largest Roman armies which was stationed along the important Rhine frontier.

He completed the reconstruction of military bases begun under his father's rule, and he ordered the repair of the region's roadways.

Constantine began a major expansion of Trier. He strengthened the circuit wall around the city with military towers and fortified gates, and he began building a palace complex in the northeastern part of the city.

To the south of his palace, he ordered the construction of a large formal audience hall and a massive imperial bathhouse. He sponsored many building projects throughout Gaul during his tenure as emperor of the West, especially in Augustodunum Autun and Arelate Arles.

He probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution [87] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor" Galerius.

Constantine was largely untried and had a hint of illegitimacy about him; he relied on his father's reputation in his early propaganda, which gave as much coverage to his father's deeds as to his.

He minted a coin issue after his victory over the Alemanni which depicts weeping and begging Alemannic tribesmen, "the Alemanni conquered" beneath the phrase "Romans' rejoicing".

Following Galerius' recognition of Constantine as caesar, Constantine's portrait was brought to Rome, as was customary.

Maxentius mocked the portrait's subject as the son of a harlot and lamented his own powerlessness.

Galerius refused to recognize him but failed to unseat him. Galerius sent Severus against Maxentius, but during the campaign, Severus' armies, previously under command of Maxentius' father Maximian, defected, and Severus was seized and imprisoned.

He offered to marry his daughter Fausta to Constantine and elevate him to augustan rank. In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius and offer support to Maxentius' cause in Italy.

Constantine now gave Maxentius his meagre support, offering Maxentius political recognition. Constantine remained aloof from the Italian conflict, however.

Over the spring and summer of AD, he had left Gaul for Britain to avoid any involvement in the Italian turmoil; [98] now, instead of giving Maxentius military aid, he sent his troops against Germanic tribes along the Rhine.

In AD, he marched to the northern Rhine and fought the Franks. When not campaigning, he toured his lands advertising his benevolence and supporting the economy and the arts.

His refusal to participate in the war increased his popularity among his people and strengthened his power base in the West.

On 11 November AD, Galerius called a general council at the military city of Carnuntum Petronell-Carnuntum , Austria to resolve the instability in the western provinces.

In attendance were Diocletian, briefly returned from retirement, Galerius, and Maximian. Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to caesar.

Licinius , one of Galerius' old military companions, was appointed augustus in the western regions. The new system did not last long: Constantine refused to accept the demotion and continued to style himself as augustus on his coinage, even as other members of the Tetrarchy referred to him as a caesar on theirs.

Maximinus Daia was frustrated that he had been passed over for promotion while the newcomer Licinius had been raised to the office of augustus and demanded that Galerius promote him.

Galerius offered to call both Maximinus and Constantine "sons of the augusti", [] but neither accepted the new title.

In AD, a dispossessed Maximian rebelled against Constantine while Constantine was away campaigning against the Franks.

Maximian had been sent south to Arles with a contingent of Constantine's army, in preparation for any attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul.

He announced that Constantine was dead, and took up the imperial purple. In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave.

Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.

He disembarked at Lugdunum Lyon. It made little difference, however, as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine.

Maximian was captured and reproved for his crimes. Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide.

In July AD, Maximian hanged himself. In spite of the earlier rupture in their relations, Maxentius was eager to present himself as his father's devoted son after his death.

According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep. Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a eunuch in his own place in bed.

Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted. The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image.

He could no longer rely on his connection to the elder Emperor Maximian, and needed a new source of legitimacy.

Breaking away from tetrarchic models, the speech emphasizes Constantine's ancestral prerogative to rule, rather than principles of imperial equality.

The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule. The oration also moves away from the religious ideology of the Tetrarchy, with its focus on twin dynasties of Jupiter and Hercules.

Instead, the orator proclaims that Constantine experienced a divine vision of Apollo and Victory granting him laurel wreaths of health and a long reign.

In the likeness of Apollo, Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world", [] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.

In his early reign, the coinage of Constantine advertised Mars as his patron. By the middle of AD, Galerius had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics.

A hasty peace was signed on a boat in the middle of the Bosphorus. Maxentius' rule was nevertheless insecure.

His early support dissolved in the wake of heightened tax rates and depressed trade; riots broke out in Rome and Carthage ; [] and Domitius Alexander was able to briefly usurp his authority in Africa.

He declared war on Constantine, vowing to avenge his father's "murder". Maximinus considered Constantine's arrangement with Licinius an affront to his authority.

In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius in exchange for a military support. Maxentius accepted.

There was "not a place where people were not expecting the onset of hostilities every day". Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavourable omens.

Constantine ordered his men to set fire to its gates and scale its walls. He took the town quickly. Constantine ordered his troops not to loot the town, and advanced with them into northern Italy.

At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum Turin , Italy , Constantine met a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.

Constantine's armies emerged victorious. He moved on to Milan, where he was met with open gates and jubilant rejoicing. Brescia's army was easily dispersed, [] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona , where a large Maxentian force was camped.

Constantine sent a small force north of the town in an attempt to cross the river unnoticed. Ruricius sent a large detachment to counter Constantine's expeditionary force, but was defeated.

Constantine's forces successfully surrounded the town and laid siege. Constantine refused to let up on the siege, and sent only a small force to oppose him.

In the desperately fought encounter that followed, Ruricius was killed and his army destroyed. Maxentius prepared for the same type of war he had waged against Severus and Galerius: he sat in Rome and prepared for a siege.

He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods, [] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge.

The keepers prophesied that, on that very day, "the enemy of the Romans" would die. Maxentius advanced north to meet Constantine in battle.

Maxentius' forces were still twice the size of Constantine's, and he organized them in long lines facing the battle plain with their backs to the river.

Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line. He ordered his cavalry to charge, and they broke Maxentius' cavalry.

He then sent his infantry against Maxentius' infantry, pushing many into the Tiber where they were slaughtered and drowned. Maxentius rode with them and attempted to cross the bridge of boats Ponte Milvio , but he was pushed into the Tiber and drowned by the mass of his fleeing soldiers.

Constantine entered Rome on 29 October AD, [] [] and staged a grand adventus in the city which was met with jubilation. An extensive propaganda campaign followed, during which Maxentius' image was purged from all public places.

He was written up as a "tyrant" and set against an idealized image of Constantine the "liberator". Eusebius is the best representative of this strand of Constantinian propaganda.

All structures built by him were rededicated to Constantine, including the Temple of Romulus and the Basilica of Maxentius. Its inscription bore the message which the statue illustrated: By this sign, Constantine had freed Rome from the yoke of the tyrant.

Constantine also sought to upstage Maxentius' achievements. For example, the Circus Maximus was redeveloped so that its seating capacity was 25 times larger than that of Maxentius' racing complex on the Via Appia.

In the following years, Constantine gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy.

In , he met Licinius in Milan to secure their alliance by the marriage of Licinius and Constantine's half-sister Constantia. During this meeting, the emperors agreed on the so-called Edict of Milan , [] officially granting full tolerance to Christianity and all religions in the Empire.

It repudiates past methods of religious coercion and used only general terms to refer to the divine sphere—"Divinity" and "Supreme Divinity", summa divinitas.

Licinius departed and eventually defeated Maximinus, gaining control over the entire eastern half of the Roman Empire.

Relations between the two remaining emperors deteriorated, as Constantine suffered an assassination attempt at the hands of a character that Licinius wanted elevated to the rank of Caesar; [] Licinius, for his part, had Constantine's statues in Emona destroyed.

They clashed again at the Battle of Mardia in , and agreed to a settlement in which Constantine's sons Crispus and Constantine II , and Licinius' son Licinianus were made caesars.

In the year , Licinius allegedly reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in and began to oppress Christians anew, [] generally without bloodshed, but resorting to confiscations and sacking of Christian office-holders.

Therefore, Licinius was prone to see the Church as a force more loyal to Constantine than to the Imperial system in general, [] as the explanation offered by the Church historian Sozomen.

This dubious arrangement eventually became a challenge to Constantine in the West, climaxing in the great civil war of Licinius, aided by Goths mercenaries , represented the past and the ancient pagan faiths.

Constantine and his Franks marched under the standard of the labarum , and both sides saw the battle in religious terms.

Outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the Battle of Adrianople.

Licinius fled across the Bosphorus and appointed Martinian , his magister officiorum , as nominal Augustus in the West, but Constantine next won the Battle of the Hellespont , and finally the Battle of Chrysopolis on 18 September Licinius' defeat came to represent the defeat of a rival centre of pagan and Greek-speaking political activity in the East, as opposed to the Christian and Latin-speaking Rome, and it was proposed that a new Eastern capital should represent the integration of the East into the Roman Empire as a whole, as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation for the whole of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Special commemorative coins were issued in to honor the event. The new city was protected by the relics of the True Cross , the Rod of Moses and other holy relics , though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city.

Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite. Generations later there was the story that a divine vision led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see led him on a circuit of the new walls.

In February , he met with Licinius in Milan and developed the Edict of Milan, which stated that Christians should be allowed to follow their faith without oppression.

The edict protected all religions from persecution, not only Christianity, allowing anyone to worship any deity that they chose. A similar edict had been issued in by Galerius, senior emperor of the Tetrarchy, which granted Christians the right to practise their religion but did not restore any property to them.

Scholars debate whether Constantine adopted his mother Helena's Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life.

Constantine possibly retained the title of pontifex maximus which emperors bore as heads of the ancient Roman religion until Gratian renounced the title.

Peter's resting place, so much so that it even affected the design of the basilica, including the challenge of erecting it on the hill where St.

Peter rested, making its complete construction time over 30 years from the date Constantine ordered it to be built. Constantine might not have patronized Christianity alone.

He built a triumphal arch in to celebrate his victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge which was decorated with images of the goddess Victoria , and sacrifices were made to pagan gods at its dedication, including Apollo , Diana , and Hercules.

Absent from the Arch are any depictions of Christian symbolism. However, the Arch was commissioned by the Senate, so the absence of Christian symbols may reflect the role of the Curia at the time as a pagan redoubt.

In , he legislated that the venerable Sunday should be a day of rest for all citizens. The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the emperor to have great influence and authority in the early Christian councils, most notably the dispute over Arianism.

Constantine disliked the risks to societal stability that religious disputes and controversies brought with them, preferring to establish an orthodoxy.

North African bishops struggled with Christian bishops who had been ordained by Donatus in opposition to Caecilian from to The African bishops could not come to terms, and the Donatists asked Constantine to act as a judge in the dispute.

Three regional Church councils and another trial before Constantine all ruled against Donatus and the Donatism movement in North Africa.

In , Constantine issued an edict to confiscate Donatist church property and to send Donatist clergy into exile.

He enforced the council's prohibition against celebrating the Lord's Supper on the day before the Jewish Passover , which marked a definite break of Christianity from the Judaic tradition.

From then on, the solar Julian Calendar was given precedence over the lunisolar Hebrew Calendar among the Christian churches of the Roman Empire.

Constantine made some new laws regarding the Jews; some of them were unfavorable towards Jews, although they were not harsher than those of his predecessors.

Beginning in the mid-3rd century, the emperors began to favor members of the equestrian order over senators, who had a monopoly on the most important offices of state.

Senators were stripped of the command of legions and most provincial governorships, as it was felt that they lacked the specialized military upbringing needed in an age of acute defense needs; [] such posts were given to equestrians by Diocletian and his colleagues, following a practice enforced piecemeal by their predecessors.

The emperors, however, still needed the talents and the help of the very rich, who were relied on to maintain social order and cohesion by means of a web of powerful influence and contacts at all levels.

Exclusion of the old senatorial aristocracy threatened this arrangement. In , Constantine reversed this pro-equestrian trend, raising many administrative positions to senatorial rank and thus opening these offices to the old aristocracy; at the same time, he elevated the rank of existing equestrian office-holders to senator, degrading the equestrian order in the process at least as a bureaucratic rank.

By the new Constantinian arrangement, one could become a senator by being elected praetor or by fulfilling a function of senatorial rank.

Constantine gained the support of the old nobility with this, [] as the Senate was allowed itself to elect praetors and quaestors , in place of the usual practice of the emperors directly creating new magistrates adlectio.

An inscription in honor of city prefect — Ceionius Rufus Albinus states that Constantine had restored the Senate "the auctoritas it had lost at Caesar's time".

The Senate as a body remained devoid of any significant power; nevertheless, the senators had been marginalized as potential holders of imperial functions during the 3rd century but could now dispute such positions alongside more upstart bureaucrats.

Some historians suggest that early conversions among the old aristocracy were more numerous than previously supposed.

Constantine's reforms had to do only with the civilian administration. The military chiefs had risen from the ranks since the Crisis of the Third Century [] but remained outside the senate, in which they were included only by Constantine's children.

The third century saw runaway inflation associated with the production of fiat money to pay for public expenses, and Diocletian tried unsuccessfully to re-establish trustworthy minting of silver and billon coins.

The failure resided in the fact that the silver currency was overvalued in terms of its actual metal content, and therefore could only circulate at much discounted rates.

Constantine stopped minting the Diocletianic "pure" silver argenteus soon after , while the billon currency continued to be used until the s.

From the early s on, Constantine forsook any attempts at restoring the silver currency, preferring instead to concentrate on minting large quantities of the gold solidus , 72 of which made a pound of gold.

New and highly debased silver pieces continued to be issued during his later reign and after his death, in a continuous process of retariffing, until this bullion minting ceased in , and the silver piece was continued by various denominations of bronze coins, the most important being the centenionalis.

The author of De Rebus Bellicis held that the rift widened between classes because of this monetary policy; the rich benefited from the stability in purchasing power of the gold piece, while the poor had to cope with ever-degrading bronze pieces.

Constantine's monetary policies were closely associated with his religious policies; increased minting was associated with the confiscation of all gold, silver, and bronze statues from pagan temples between and which were declared to be imperial property.

Two imperial commissioners for each province had the task of getting the statues and melting them for immediate minting, with the exception of a number of bronze statues that were used as public monuments in Constantinople.

Constantine had his eldest son Crispus seized and put to death by "cold poison" at Pola Pula , Croatia sometime between 15 May and 17 June Eusebius, for example, edited out any praise of Crispus from later copies of Historia Ecclesiastica , and his Vita Constantini contains no mention of Fausta or Crispus at all.

A popular myth arose, modified to allude to the Hippolytus — Phaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities; [] the largely fictional Passion of Artemius explicitly makes this connection.

Although Constantine created his apparent heirs "Caesars", following a pattern established by Diocletian, he gave his creations a hereditary character, alien to the tetrarchic system: Constantine's Caesars were to be kept in the hope of ascending to Empire, and entirely subordinated to their Augustus, as long as he was alive.

Constantine considered Constantinople his capital and permanent residence. He lived there for a good portion of his later life.

In construction was completed on Constantine's Bridge at Sucidava, today Celei in Romania [] in hopes of reconquering Dacia , a province that had been abandoned under Aurelian.

In the late winter of , Constantine campaigned with the Sarmatians against the Goths. The weather and lack of food cost the Goths dearly: reportedly, nearly one hundred thousand died before they submitted to Rome.

In , after Sarmatian commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe.

He won a victory in the war and extended his control over the region, as remains of camps and fortifications in the region indicate.

The new frontier in Dacia was along the Brazda lui Novac line supported by new castra. In the last years of his life, Constantine made plans for a campaign against Persia.

In a letter written to the king of Persia, Shapur , Constantine had asserted his patronage over Persia's Christian subjects and urged Shapur to treat them well.

In response to border raids, Constantine sent Constantius to guard the eastern frontier in In , Prince Narseh invaded Armenia a Christian kingdom since and installed a Persian client on the throne.

Constantine then resolved to campaign against Persia himself. He treated the war as a Christian crusade, calling for bishops to accompany the army and commissioning a tent in the shape of a church to follow him everywhere.

Constantine planned to be baptized in the Jordan River before crossing into Persia. Persian diplomats came to Constantinople over the winter of —, seeking peace, but Constantine turned them away.

The campaign was called off, however, when Constantine became sick in the spring of Constantine knew death would soon come.

Within the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantine had secretly prepared a final resting-place for himself. Soon after the Feast of Easter , Constantine fell seriously ill.

There, in a church his mother built in honor of Lucian the Apostle, he prayed, and there he realized that he was dying.

Seeking purification, he became a catechumen , and attempted a return to Constantinople, making it only as far as a suburb of Nicomedia.

He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness. The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom".

Although Constantine's death follows the conclusion of the Persian campaign in Eusebius's account, most other sources report his death as occurring in its middle.

Emperor Julian the Apostate a nephew of Constantine , writing in the mids, observes that the Sassanians escaped punishment for their ill-deeds, because Constantine died "in the middle of his preparations for war".

Following his death, his body was transferred to Constantinople and buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles , [] in a porphyry sarcophagus that was described in the 10th century by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in the De Ceremoniis.

A number of relatives were killed by followers of Constantius, notably Constantine's nephews Dalmatius who held the rank of Caesar and Hannibalianus , presumably to eliminate possible contenders to an already complicated succession.

He also had two daughters, Constantina and Helena , wife of Emperor Julian. He reunited the Empire under one emperor, and he won major victories over the Franks and Alamanni in —, the Franks again in —, the Goths in , and the Sarmatians in By , he had reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to end raids on the eastern provinces from the Persian Empire.

In the cultural sphere, Constantine revived the clean-shaven face fashion of the Roman emperors from Augustus to Trajan , which was originally introduced among the Romans by Scipio Africanus.

This new Roman imperial fashion lasted until the reign of Phocas. The Holy Roman Empire reckoned Constantine among the venerable figures of its tradition.

In the later Byzantine state, it became a great honor for an emperor to be hailed as a "new Constantine"; ten emperors carried the name, including the last emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Constantine acquired a mythic role as a warrior against heathens. The motif of the Romanesque equestrian, the mounted figure in the posture of a triumphant Roman emperor, became a visual metaphor in statuary in praise of local benefactors.

The name "Constantine" itself enjoyed renewed popularity in western France in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

Constantine was presented as a paragon of virtue during his lifetime. Pagans showered him with praise, such as Praxagoras of Athens , and Libanius.

His nephew and son-in-law Julian the Apostate, however, wrote the satire Symposium, or the Saturnalia in , after the last of his sons died; it denigrated Constantine, calling him inferior to the great pagan emperors, and given over to luxury and greed.

Constantine was presented as an ideal ruler during the Middle Ages, the standard against which any king or emperor could be measured. German humanist Johannes Leunclavius discovered Zosimus' writings and published a Latin translation in In its preface, he argued that Zosimus' picture of Constantine offered a more balanced view than that of Eusebius and the Church historians.

Baronius' Life of Constantine presents Constantine as the model of a Christian prince. Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.

These later accounts were more willing to present Constantine as a genuine convert to Christianity. Norman H. Baynes began a historiographic tradition with Constantine the Great and the Christian Church which presents Constantine as a committed Christian, reinforced by Andreas Alföldi 's The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome , and Timothy Barnes 's Constantine and Eusebius is the culmination of this trend.

Barnes' Constantine experienced a radical conversion which drove him on a personal crusade to convert his empire. Elliott's The Christianity of Constantine the Great , which presented Constantine as a committed Christian from early childhood.

Latin Rite Catholics considered it inappropriate that Constantine was baptized only on his death bed by an unorthodox bishop, as it undermined the authority of the Papacy, and a legend emerged by the early fourth century that Pope Sylvester I — had cured the pagan emperor from leprosy.

According to this legend, Constantine was soon baptized and began the construction of a church in the Lateran Palace.

During the medieval period, Britons regarded Constantine as a king of their own people, particularly associating him with Caernarfon in Gwynedd.

While some of this is owed to his fame and his proclamation as Emperor in Britain , there was also confusion of his family with Magnus Maximus 's supposed wife Saint Elen and her son, another Constantine Welsh : Custennin.

In the 12th century Henry of Huntingdon included a passage in his Historia Anglorum that the Emperor Constantine's mother was a Briton, making her the daughter of King Cole of Colchester.

Afraid of the Romans, Cole submitted to Roman law so long as he retained his kingship. However, he died only a month later, and Constantius took the throne himself, marrying Cole's daughter Helena.

They had their son Constantine, who succeeded his father as King of Britain before becoming Roman Emperor. Historically, this series of events is extremely improbable.

Constantius had already left Helena by the time he left for Britain. Henry's source for the story is unknown, though it may have been a lost hagiography of Helena.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Roman emperor. For other uses, see Constantine disambiguation and Constantine I disambiguation. Colossal head of Constantine 4th century , Capitoline museum , Rome.

Galerius — Maximinus Daia — Licinius — Himself in the West Licinius in the East. Minervina may have been his concubine Fausta.

Nicene Christianity Roman Religion previously. See also: Civil wars of the Tetrarchy. Battles of Constantine I. Main article: Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

Further information: Ponte Milvio. The Roman Empire in , showing Constantine's conquests in Dacia across the lower Danube shaded purple and other Roman dependencies light purple.

Gold medallion struck at Nicomedia in — to celebrate the 30th anniversary of his rule. The Constantinian dynasty down to Gratian r.

Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Nativity Crucifixion Resurrection. Bible Foundations.

History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Related topics. Main article: Donation of Constantine.

Byzantine Empire portal Saints portal. See Philip the Arab and Christianity. Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" CC , Pohlsander, "Philip the Arab and Christianity", Historia : — Byzantium First American ed.

New York. Retrieved 3 March Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium 2nd ed. Bloomsbury Academic. Constantine and the Christian empire. London: Routledge.

Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum. Conflict, conquest, and conversion two thousand years of Christian missions in the Middle East.

New York: Columbia University Press. Contra: J. See also: William E. Gwatkin, Jr. Roman Trier. Odahl, 83; Rodgers, June's Most Anticipated Streaming Titles.

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Sie nicht der Experte, zufällig?

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