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Louis der 14

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Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Louis XIV bezeichnet: Ludwig XIV. (–), König von Frankreich und Navarra („Sonnenkönig“); Louis XIV (Band), eine amerikanische Rockband; Louis. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Ludwig XIV. gab Frankreich nicht nur eine neue absolutistische Ordnung, sondern auch einen galanten Stil. Der junge Monarch Louis XIV.

louis der 14

Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Louis XIV bezeichnet: Ludwig XIV. (–), König von Frankreich und Navarra („Sonnenkönig“); Louis XIV (Band), eine amerikanische Rockband; Louis. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra.

Louis Der 14 - Promiskuität prägte den Hof des Sonnenkönigs

Link zum Artikel 5. Sollte auch dieser nicht mehr zu Verfügung stehen, so würde dann erst Erzherzog Karl sein Erbe werden. Oktober die religiösen und bürgerlichen Rechte der Hugenotten. Beide Künstler zusammen zeigten sich für die Organisation der königlichen Spektakel verantwortlich. Denn viele Franzosen waren froh, dass sie ihren Langzeit-Monarchen los waren. Jules Mazarin Der Chirurg, der seine Gilde erstmals mit Ruhm bedecken wird. Die Puppe wurde danach angezogen und aufrecht ins Bett gesetzt, wo sie Trauergäste "empfing". Louis der 14 die Ehe zwischen Ludwig und Anna blieb unglücklich, da der König Zweifel an go here Abstammung seiner Kinder hegte und seiner Frau vorwarf, den Thronfolger gegen ihn einzunehmen. Jahrhunderts gegen alle Krankheiten des Leibes und der Seele am just click for source Bande Abführmittel, etwa so wie heute viele Ärzte am laufenden Band Beruhigungstabletten verschreiben. louis der 14

Louis Der 14 Video

Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is highly likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother.

This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as:. But attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood.

It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. In , Nicolas V de Villeroy became the young king's tutor.

Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers Chavigny, Bouthilier , and she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs.

Anne kept the direction of religious policy strongly in her hand until ; her most important political decisions were to nominate Cardinal Mazarin as her chief minister and the continuation of her late husband's and Cardinal Richelieu 's policy, despite their persecution of her, for the sake of her son.

Anne wanted to give her son absolute authority and a victorious kingdom. Her rationales for choosing Mazarin were mainly his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until when she was no longer regent.

Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in the Duke of Beaufort and Marie de Rohan.

Anne was virtually under house arrest for a number of years during her husband's rule. By keeping him in his post, Anne was giving a sign that the interests of France and her son Louis were the guiding spirit of all her political and legal actions.

Though not necessarily opposed to Spain, she sought to end the war with a French victory, in order to establish a lasting peace between the Catholic nations.

The Queen also gave a partial Catholic orientation to French foreign policy. This was felt by the Netherlands, France's Protestant ally, which negotiated a separate peace with Spain in Its terms ensured Dutch independence from Spain , awarded some autonomy to the various German princes of the Holy Roman Empire , and granted Sweden seats on the Imperial Diet and territories to control the mouths of the Oder , Elbe , and Weser rivers.

France, however, profited most from the settlement. Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves from Habsburg domination, petty German states sought French protection.

This anticipated the formation of the League of the Rhine , leading to the further diminution of Imperial power. As the Thirty Years' War came to an end, a civil war known as the Fronde after the slings used to smash windows erupted in France.

It effectively checked France's ability to exploit the Peace of Westphalia. Anne and Mazarin had largely pursued the policies of Cardinal Richelieu , augmenting the Crown's power at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements.

Anne interfered much more in internal policy than foreign affairs; she was a very proud queen who insisted on the divine rights of the King of France.

All this led her to advocate a forceful policy in all matters relating to the King's authority, in a manner that was much more radical than the one proposed by Mazarin.

The Cardinal depended totally on Anne's support and had to use all his influence on the Queen to avoid nullifying, but to restrain some of her radical actions.

Anne imprisoned any aristocrat or member of parliament who challenged her will; her main aim was to transfer to her son an absolute authority in the matters of finance and justice.

One of the leaders of the Parlement of Paris, whom she had jailed, died in prison. The Frondeurs , political heirs of the disaffected feudal aristocracy, sought to protect their traditional feudal privileges from the increasingly centralized royal government.

Furthermore, they believed their traditional influence and authority was being usurped by the recently ennobled bureaucrats the Noblesse de Robe , or "nobility of the robe" , who administered the kingdom and on whom the monarchy increasingly began to rely.

This belief intensified the nobles' resentment. In , Anne and Mazarin attempted to tax members of the Parlement de Paris.

The members refused to comply and ordered all of the king's earlier financial edicts burned. People in France were complaining about the expansion of royal authority, the high rate of taxation, and the reduction of the authority of the Parlement de Paris and other regional representative entities.

Paris erupted in rioting as a result, and Anne was forced, under intense pressure, to free Broussel. Moreover, a mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king.

Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased, and then quietly departed.

The threat to the royal family prompted Anne to flee Paris with the king and his courtiers. Beaufort, who had escaped from the prison where Anne had incarcerated him five years before, was the military leader in Paris, under the nominal control of Conti.

After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. This situation did not last long, and Mazarin's unpopularity led to the creation of a coalition headed mainly by Marie de Rohan and the duchess of Longueville.

This aristocratic coalition was strong enough to liberate the princes, exile Mazarin, and impose a condition of virtual house arrest on Queen Anne.

All these events were witnessed by Louis and largely explained his later distrust of Paris and the higher aristocracy. It was not only that life became insecure and unpleasant — a fate meted out to many children in all ages — but that Louis had to be taken into the confidence of his mother and Mazarin and political and military matters of which he could have no deep understanding".

The Fronde years planted in Louis a hatred of Paris and a consequent determination to move out of the ancient capital as soon as possible, never to return.

Just as the first Fronde the Fronde parlementaire of — ended, a second one the Fronde des princes of — began. Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterized this second phase of upper-class insurrection.

To the aristocracy, this rebellion represented a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion from vassals to courtiers.

Queen Anne played the most important role in defeating the Fronde because she wanted to transfer absolute authority to her son.

In addition, most of the princes refused to deal with Mazarin, who went into exile for a number of years. The Frondeurs claimed to act on Louis' behalf, and in his real interest against his mother and Mazarin.

The Fronde thus gradually lost steam and ended in , when Mazarin returned triumphantly from exile.

From that time until his death, Mazarin was in charge of foreign and financial policy without the daily supervision of Anne, who was no longer regent.

During this period, Louis fell in love with Mazarin's niece Marie Mancini , but Anne and Mazarin ended the king's infatuation by sending Mancini away from court to be married in Italy.

While Mazarin might have been tempted for a short period of time to marry his niece to the King of France, Queen Anne was absolutely against this; she wanted to marry her son to the daughter of her brother, Philip IV of Spain , for both dynastic and political reasons.

Mazarin soon supported the Queen's position because he knew that her support for his power and his foreign policy depended on making peace with Spain from a strong position and on the Spanish marriage.

Additionally, Mazarin's relations with Marie Mancini were not good, and he did not trust her to support his position. All of Louis' tears and his supplications to his mother did not make her change her mind; the Spanish marriage was very important both for its role in ending the war between France and Spain, and because many of the claims and objectives of Louis' foreign policy in the next 50 years would be based on this marriage.

Louis XIV was declared to have reached the age of majority on 7 September On the death of Mazarin, in March , Louis assumed personal control of the reins of government and astonished his court by declaring that he would rule without a chief minister: "Up to this moment I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal.

It is now time that I govern them myself. You [he was talking to the secretaries and ministers of state] will assist me with your counsels when I ask for them.

I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport.

Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, the historian Chateaubriand noted: "it is the voice of genius of all kinds which sounds from the tomb of Louis".

Louis began his personal reign with administrative and fiscal reforms. In , the treasury verged on bankruptcy. However, Louis first had to neutralize Nicolas Fouquet , the Superintendent of Finances , in order to give Colbert a free hand.

Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not very different from Mazarin's before him or Colbert's after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis.

The court was left with the impression that the vast sums of money needed to support his lifestyle could only have been obtained through embezzlement of government funds.

These acts sealed his doom. Fouquet was charged with embezzlement. The Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile.

However, Louis altered the sentence to life-imprisonment and abolished Fouquet's post. With Fouquet dismissed, Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation.

The principal taxes included the aides and douanes both customs duties , the gabelle a tax on salt , and the taille a tax on land. The taille was reduced at first; financial officials were forced to keep regular accounts, auctioning certain taxes instead of selling them privately to a favored few, revising inventories and removing unauthorized exemptions for example, in only 10 per cent from the royal domain reached the King.

Reform proved difficult because the taille was levied by officers of the Crown who had purchased their post at a high price: punishment of abuses necessarily lowered the value of the post.

Nevertheless, excellent results were achieved: the deficit of turned into a surplus in The revenues of the royal domain were raised from 80, livres in to 5.

To support the reorganized and enlarged army, the panoply of Versailles, and the growing civil administration, the king needed a good deal of money.

Finance had always been the weak spot in the French monarchy: methods of collecting taxes were costly and inefficient; direct taxes passed through the hands of many intermediate officials; and indirect taxes were collected by private concessionaries, called tax farmers, who made a substantial profit.

Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. The main weakness arose from an old bargain between the French crown and nobility: the king might raise taxes without consent if only he refrained from taxing the nobles.

Only the "unprivileged" classes paid direct taxes, and this term came to mean the peasants only, since many bourgeois, in one way or another, obtained exemptions.

The system was outrageously unjust in throwing a heavy tax burden on the poor and helpless. Later, after , the French ministers who were supported by Louis' secret wife Madame De Maintenon, were able to convince the king to change his fiscal policy.

Louis was willing enough to tax the nobles but was unwilling to fall under their control, and only towards the close of his reign, under extreme stress of war, was he able, for the first time in French history, to impose direct taxes on the aristocratic elements of the population.

This was a step toward equality before the law and toward sound public finance, but so many concessions and exemptions were won by nobles and bourgeois that the reform lost much of its value.

Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Colbert's mercantilist administration established new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Gobelins manufactory , a producer of tapestries.

He invited manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe to France, such as Murano glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders.

In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France.

They helped to curb the independent spirit of the nobility, imposing order on them at court and in the army. Gone were the days when generals protracted war at the frontiers while bickering over precedence and ignoring orders from the capital and the larger politico-diplomatic picture.

Louvois, in particular, pledged to modernize the army and re-organize it into a professional, disciplined, well-trained force.

He was devoted to the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and even tried to direct campaigns. Legal matters did not escape Louis' attention, as is reflected in the numerous " Great Ordinances " he enacted.

Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions— customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south.

Among other things, it prescribed baptismal, marriage and death records in the state's registers, not the church's, and it strictly regulated the right of the Parlements to remonstrate.

One of Louis' more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of , also known as the Code Noir "black code". Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families.

Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised. The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry; rather, the lack of payment was what Louis XIV used as a pretext for nullifying Maria Theresa's renunciation of her claims, allowing the land to "devolve" to him.

In Brabant the location of the land in dispute , children of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents' remarriages and still inherited property.

Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.

Johan de Witt , Dutch Grand Pensionary from to , viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents.

Louis provided support in the Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold , the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic , then seize the Spanish Netherlands.

Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th.

The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February Treaty of Westminster.

Reforms introduced by Louvois , the Secretary of War , helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready.

By , mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen , which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War.

Despite military defeat, his ally Sweden regained much of their losses under the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Fontainebleau and Lund imposed on Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg.

Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion.

In , he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies.

Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims avoided using military force alone. Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom.

Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously. Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties.

Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale , were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways.

Louis also sought Strasbourg , an important strategic crossing on the left bank of the Rhine and theretofore a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire , annexing it and other territories in Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia.

Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor distracted by the Great Turkish War abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally.

By the Truce of Ratisbon , in , Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.

This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli , two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves.

Next, in , a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars. Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.

European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades ' effect discussed below led many states to abandon their alliance with France.

French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America.

Throughout these regions Louis and Colbert embarked on an extensive program of architecture and urbanism meant to reflect the styles of Versailles and Paris and the 'gloire' of the realm.

Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in , reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont.

This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan , superbly received at Versailles in However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya , the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon , and the Siege of Bangkok in ended this era of French influence.

France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. By the early s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.

Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.

Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.

Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope.

Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties.

Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.

Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.

Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions.

Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.

Louis' extravagance at Versailles extended far beyond the scope of elaborate court rituals. Louis took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal.

This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.

Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy the "nobility of the sword" into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.

In their place, Louis raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe".

He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.

It is believed that Louis' policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde , when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some.

This victory of Louis' over the nobility may have then in fact ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the French Revolution about a century later.

In France was the leading European power, and most of the wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army.

It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for all the military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it.

There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory.

What's more, most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. Vauban , France's leading military strategist, warned the king in that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea.

He recommended the best way for France to fight back was to license French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.

Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom.

He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.

He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.

In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.

Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse.

Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades. On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.

The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished.

Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.

Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.

He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.

Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.

Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.

They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained. What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed.

Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.

Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.

In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.

French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.

This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis' political and diplomatic fortunes.

The conflict arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis' sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.

German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.

Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.

The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria. However, the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.

Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.

In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis' actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.

Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Another event that Louis found threatening was the Glorious Revolution of , in England.

However, when James II's son James was born, he took precedence in the succession over his elder sisters. This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.

He sailed for England with troops despite Louis' warning that France would regard it as a provocation. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England.

Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.

Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.

This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".

His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion. Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.

Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.

Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.

The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.

Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail.

Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.

The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border which persists to this day.

However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.

Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis' grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , as heir to the throne of Spain.

Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.

The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.

Though in some respects, the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.

By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.

He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.

Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations.

However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters. In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.

This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.

William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.

In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died.

The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories. On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will.

The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.

He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.

If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.

Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He might agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.

Initially, Louis may have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.

He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".

Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, though some only reluctantly.

Depending on one's views of the war as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.

But his actions were certainly not read as being disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.

These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.

When finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession would last almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and the kingdom of France.

The war began with French successes, however the joint talents of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.

The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy.

Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to mount an invasion of France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France.

Between and , over two million people died in two famines , made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.

By the winter of —, Louis was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and he also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over sixty years of his reign.

He could not speak for his grandson, however, and could not promise that Philip V would accept these terms.

Thus, the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his own grandson to force these terms on him. If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume.

Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for King Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the sixteenth century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Britain gained most from the Treaty of Utrecht, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those which were being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their pre-war status and returned their lands.

Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.

Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion.

Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa. He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial.

Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.

He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church.

Louis made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly. Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.

Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.

With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of Louis' reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.

At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.

For example, the memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.

However, his sponsorship of many public works in Paris, such as the establishment of a police force and of street-lighting, [96] lend little credence to this theory.

While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.

The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle , in , also induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Este aviso fue puesto el 22 de abril de Rey de Francia y de Navarra.

Vive Henri IV de facto. Palacio de Versalles. Ana de Austria. Ana de Austria - Enrique IV de Francia.

Enrique II de Navarra. Juana III de Navarra. Margarita de Angulema. Luis XIV de Francia. Isabel de Portugal. Maximiliano II de Habsburgo.

Carlos II de Estiria. Margarita de Austria. Alberto V de Baviera. Sucesor: Luis XV.

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Louis Der 14 Inhaltsverzeichnis

Teilungsvertrag aus. Der bayerische Prinz Joseph-Ferdinand sollte Spanien bekommen und die restlichen europäischen Besitzungen Spaniens sollten zwischen Ludwig und Leopold aufgeteilt werden. Er schwächte den Adelindem er die Adeligen lieber zu Mitgliedern seines Hofes als zu regionalen Click machte. Joshuuaa Einige dieser Männer standen schon in Diensten des Kardinals Mazarin. Trotz der grossen Menge der Säle gibt es nicht einen einzigen wirklich grossen Theater- Bankett- oder Ballsaal. Frankreichs Staatsfinanzen wurden überbeansprucht, leere Kassen waren die Folge. The oder ich louis der 14 Als Mazarin am 9. Reportaje louis der 14 la historia: relatos de testigos presenciales sobre hechos ocurridos en 25 siglos, Volumen 2. Seine Mutter vermittelte ihm das Bewusstsein source Gott zum Herrscher auserwählt worden zu sein Please click for sourceworaus sich der unumschränkte Machtanspruch check this out französischen Monarchen ableite. Luis XIV de Francia. Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. La armadas de Louis no ia pote avansa plu, e los jessie spiele negosia un sesaspara. He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.

Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.

Johan de Witt , Dutch Grand Pensionary from to , viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents. Louis provided support in the Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold , the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic , then seize the Spanish Netherlands.

Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th.

The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February Treaty of Westminster.

Reforms introduced by Louvois , the Secretary of War , helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready.

By , mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen , which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War.

Despite military defeat, his ally Sweden regained much of their losses under the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Fontainebleau and Lund imposed on Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg.

Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion.

In , he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies.

Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims avoided using military force alone. Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom.

Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously. Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties.

Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale , were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways.

Louis also sought Strasbourg , an important strategic crossing on the left bank of the Rhine and theretofore a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire , annexing it and other territories in Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia.

Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor distracted by the Great Turkish War abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally.

By the Truce of Ratisbon , in , Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.

This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa.

First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli , two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves.

Next, in , a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars. Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.

European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades ' effect discussed below led many states to abandon their alliance with France.

French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America.

Throughout these regions Louis and Colbert embarked on an extensive program of architecture and urbanism meant to reflect the styles of Versailles and Paris and the 'gloire' of the realm.

Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in , reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont.

This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan , superbly received at Versailles in However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya , the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon , and the Siege of Bangkok in ended this era of French influence.

France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. By the early s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.

Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.

Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.

Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties.

Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.

Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.

Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions.

Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.

Louis' extravagance at Versailles extended far beyond the scope of elaborate court rituals. Louis took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal.

This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.

Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy the "nobility of the sword" into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.

In their place, Louis raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe". He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.

It is believed that Louis' policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde , when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some.

This victory of Louis' over the nobility may have then in fact ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the French Revolution about a century later.

In France was the leading European power, and most of the wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army.

It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for all the military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it.

There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory.

What's more, most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. Vauban , France's leading military strategist, warned the king in that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea.

He recommended the best way for France to fight back was to license French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.

Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom.

He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.

He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.

In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.

Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse.

Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades. On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.

The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished.

Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.

Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.

He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.

Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.

Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.

They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained.

What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.

Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.

In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.

French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.

This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis' political and diplomatic fortunes.

The conflict arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis' sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.

German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.

Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.

The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria. However, the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.

Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.

In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis' actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.

Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Another event that Louis found threatening was the Glorious Revolution of , in England.

However, when James II's son James was born, he took precedence in the succession over his elder sisters. This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.

He sailed for England with troops despite Louis' warning that France would regard it as a provocation. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England.

Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William. Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.

This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".

His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion. Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.

Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.

Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.

The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.

Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.

The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border which persists to this day.

However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.

Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis' grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , as heir to the throne of Spain.

Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.

The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.

Though in some respects, the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.

By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.

He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.

Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations. However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters.

In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.

This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.

William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.

In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died.

The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories. On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will.

The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.

He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided.

Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.

If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.

Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He might agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.

Initially, Louis may have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.

He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".

Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, though some only reluctantly.

Depending on one's views of the war as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.

But his actions were certainly not read as being disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.

These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.

When finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession would last almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and the kingdom of France.

The war began with French successes, however the joint talents of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.

The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim.

The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy. Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to mount an invasion of France.

Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. Between and , over two million people died in two famines , made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.

By the winter of —, Louis was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and he also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over sixty years of his reign.

He could not speak for his grandson, however, and could not promise that Philip V would accept these terms. Thus, the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his own grandson to force these terms on him.

If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms.

The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for King Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the sixteenth century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Britain gained most from the Treaty of Utrecht, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those which were being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their pre-war status and returned their lands.

Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.

Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.

He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.

He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church. Louis made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.

Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.

Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.

With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of Louis' reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.

At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.

For example, the memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.

However, his sponsorship of many public works in Paris, such as the establishment of a police force and of street-lighting, [96] lend little credence to this theory.

While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.

The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle , in , also induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.

With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.

With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.

The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.

Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.

This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.

The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.

As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.

There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.

Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.

Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.

However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain.

However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.

That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.

The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later.

In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.

In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.

He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.

Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.

Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France.

He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events.

They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign.

In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets. This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer.

His choices were strategic and varied. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun.

It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing. The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form.

Ballet dancing was actually used by Louis as a political tool to hold power over his state. Pierre Beauchamp , his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success.

His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in This major development in ballet played an important role in promoting French culture and ballet throughout Europe during Louis' time.

Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" the French noble style. More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status.

All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government.

They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses, and took the government into his own hands.

On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy.

These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.

Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good.

He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes , as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in , dental abscesses in , along with recurring boils , fainting spells, gout , dizziness , hot flushes, and headaches.

On 18 November , Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion.

The wound took more than two months to heal. Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September , four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne.

Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, make haste to help me.

It remained there undisturbed for about 80 years, until revolutionaries exhumed and destroyed all of the remains found in the Basilica.

Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family. His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin, died in Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father.

Burgundy's elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany , joined them a few weeks later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's younger son.

He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse , of the rank of Prince of the Blood , which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.

Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in According to Philippe de Dangeau 's Journal , Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:.

Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects.

Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins.

Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments. Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne.

This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics.

These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.

Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.

They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe.

Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal language of the European elite.

Louis' detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military, and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France. His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not.

As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu 's Persian Letters.

Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure.

Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis.

They also maintain that events occurring almost 80 years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis, and that in any case, his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.

Louis has often been criticised for his vanity. The memoirist Saint-Simon , who claimed that Louis slighted him, criticised him thus:.

There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it.

For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity:. It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves.

Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name".

In , at Nuneham House , a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt , Archbishop of York , was shown to the Dean of Westminster , William Buckland , who ate it.

He did say, "Every time I appoint someone to a vacant position, I make a hundred unhappy and one ungrateful. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if King Louis were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.

Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon , a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

It is one of the oldest in Europe. This is an incomplete list of Louis XIV's illegitimate children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Please do not move this article until the discussion is closed. King of France and Navarre, from to For the French musical about him, see Le Roi Soleil musical.

For other uses, see Sun King disambiguation. King of France. Portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud , Tras ser conducidos a la alcoba real, se quedaron mirando a Luis XIV, el cual se estaba haciendo el dormido, y se marcharon tranquilamente.

Los franceses recibieron apoyo militar de Inglaterra , dirigida por Oliver Cromwell. Ambos reinos declararon la guerra a las Provincias Unidas en La vida de la corte se centraba en la grandeza.

Los cortesanos se rodeaban de vidas lujosas, vestidos con gran magnificencia, siempre asistiendo a cenas, representaciones, celebraciones, etc.

De hecho, muchos nobles se vieron obligados a dejar toda su influencia o a depender totalmente de los subsidios y subvenciones reales para poder mantener el costoso estilo de vida versallesco.

Hacia , Luis XIV se encontraba en el apogeo de su reinado. La victoria naval francesa en la batalla de Beachy Head en fue, sin embargo, contrarrestada por la victoria angloholandesa en la batalla de La Hogue en Dichos acuerdos culminaron en el Tratado de Utrecht.

Con Madame de Montespan tuvo siete hijos:. Nerea, ed. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Consultado el 12 de abril de Reportaje de la historia: relatos de testigos presenciales sobre hechos ocurridos en 25 siglos, Volumen 2.

Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Este aviso fue puesto el 22 de abril de

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Das Ehrenwort.

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