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Londinium

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das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Durch seine günstige Lage an der Themse, die wiederum einen guten Anschluss ans Meer und ins Hinterland bot, war. Londinium, das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Durch seine günstige Lage an der Themse, die wiederum einen guten Anschluss ans Meer und ins Hinterland bot, war Londinium auch ein bedeutendes. Die Geschichte Londons umfasst rund Jahre. Eine keltische Besiedlung ist unsicher. Um das Jahr 50 n. Chr. gründeten die Römer die Stadt Londinium. Londinium, das heutige London, war eine der ältesten römischen Siedlungen im heutigen. Londinium Tower London. An der Stelle einer keltischen Siedlung gründeten die Römer 43 matsalmlof.se Londinium. Das heutige London ist mit

londinium

Londinium Definition: the Latin name for London when it was a Roman city | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele. das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Durch seine günstige Lage an der Themse, die wiederum einen guten Anschluss ans Meer und ins Hinterland bot, war. citylondonabbeyangelsachsenbankenbesatzungbörsebürgermeistercathedral​claudiuscommonwealthconqueroreinwanderereinwohnererobererfinanzen. [1] Londinium est caput et urbs maxima Britanniae. Londinium ist die Hauptstadt und die größte Stadt Britanniens. Wortbildungen: [1] Londiniensis. citylondonabbeyangelsachsenbankenbesatzungbörsebürgermeistercathedral​claudiuscommonwealthconqueroreinwanderereinwohnererobererfinanzen. Londinium (Lateinisch). Wortart: Substantiv, (sächlich), Wortart: Toponym,. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) Geografie: die Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz. Bedenkliche Kontamination: Die Bewohner des römischen Londinium litten offenbar an einer erheblichen Bleivergiftung, wie nun. Londinium wurde eine Siedlung auf dem heutigen Standort des etablierte City of London um AD Die Brücke über die Themse drehte die Stadt in eine Straße.

Another site dating to this era is the bathhouse at Huggin Hill, which remained in use until its demolition around the year Brothels were legal but taxed.

A diagram of the Roman structures from the port of Londinium Template under construction. The bulk of the Roman port was quickly rebuilt after Boudicca's rebellion [56] when the waterfront was extended with gravel to permit a sturdy wharf to be built perpendicular to the shore.

The port was built in four sections, starting upstream of the London Bridge and working down towards the Walbrook at the centre of Londinium.

Expansion of the flourishing port continued into the 3rd century. Scraps of armour , leather straps, and military stamps on building timbers suggest that the site was constructed by the city's legionaries.

A bronze head of Hadrian found in London British Museum. The impressive public buildings from around this period may have been initially constructed in preparation for his visit or during the rebuilding which followed the "Hadrianic Fire".

This fire, which archaeologists have discovered destroyed much of the city, is not recorded by any surviving source and seems to have occurred in a time of relative calm in Britain; for those reasons, it is generally assumed to have been accidental.

A model of the expanded forum at the Museum of London. During the early 2nd century, Londinium was at its height. London recovered from the fire and again had between 45, and 60, inhabitants around the year , with many more stone houses and public buildings erected.

Some areas were tightly packed with townhouses. The town had piped water [59] and a "fairly-sophisticated" drainage system.

Each side had a central gatehouse and stone towers were erected at the corners and at points along each wall. A Roman mosaic floor from Londinium British Museum.

By the second half of the 2nd century, Londinium had many large, well-equipped stone buildings, some of which were richly adorned with wall paintings, floor mosaics , and subfloor hypocausts.

The Roman house at Billingsgate was built next to the waterfront and had its own bath. The cause is uncertain but plague is considered likely, as the Antonine Plague is recorded decimating other areas of Western Europe between and The end of imperial expansion in Britain after Hadrian's decision to build his wall may have also damaged the city's economy.

Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, it appears never to have recovered fully from this slump, as archaeologists have found that much of the former city's area was covered after this date with dark earth , which remained undisturbed for centuries.

Some time between and , the Romans built the London Wall , a defensive ragstone wall around the landward side of the city. The wall was originally about 5 km long, 6 m, and 2.

Jean-Denis G. In the 19th century, Charles Roach Smith estimated its length from the Tower west to Ludgate at about one mile and its breadth from the northern wall to the north to the north bank of the Thames at around half that.

In addition to small pedestrian postern gates like the one by Tower Hill , it had four main gates: Bishopsgate and Aldgate in the northeast at the Ermine Street roads to Eboracum York and Great Road Roman Britain to Camulodunum Colchester and Newgate and Ludgate in the west along at the road which divided for travel [[Watling Street to Viroconium Wroxeter and [[Devil's Highway to Calleva Silchester and at another road which ran along the Thames to the city's main cemetery and the old ford at Westminster.

The wall partially utilized the army's existing fort, strengthening its outer wall with a second course of stone to match the rest of the course.

Aldersgate was eventually added, perhaps to replace the west gate of the fort. The names of all these gates are medieval, as they continued to be occasionally refurbished and replaced until their demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries to permit widening the roads.

Although the exact reason for the wall's construction is unknown, some historians have connected it with the Pictish invasion of the s.

The wall survived another 1, years and still roughly defines the City of London 's perimeter.

Septimius Severus defeated Albinus in and shortly afterwards divided the province of Britain into Upper and Lower halves, with the former controlled by a new governor in Eboracum York.

Despite the smaller administrative area, the economic stimulus provided by the Wall and by Septimius Severus's campaigns in Caledonia somewhat revived London's fortunes in the early 3rd century.

The northwest fort was abandoned and dismantled [64] but archaeological evidence points to renewed construction activity from this period.

The London Mithraeum rediscovered in dates from around , [71] when it was erected on the east bank at the head of navigation on the now-covered River Walbrook about m from the Thames.

It ran roughly along the course of present-day Thames Street , which then roughly formed the shoreline.

Large collapsed sections of this wall were excavated at Blackfriars and the Tower in the s. Woikipedia page [7]. In , the emperor Maximian issued a death sentence against Carausius, admiral of the Roman navy's Classis Britannica Britannic fleet , on charges of having abetted Franks and Saxon piracy and of having embezzled recovered treasure.

Carausius responded by consolidating his allies and territory and revolting. After fending off Maximian's first assault in , he declared a new Britannic Empire and issued coins to that effect.

Constantius Chlorus's sack of his Gallic base at Gesoriacum [Boulogne-Sur-Mer , however, led his treasurer Allectus to assassinate and replace him.

In , Chlorus mounted an invasion of Britain which prompted Allectus's Frankish mercenaries to sack Londinium. They were only stopped by the arrival of a flotilla of Roman warships on the Thames, which slaughtered the survivors.

The structures were modest enough that they were previously identified as parts of the forum and market but are now recognized as elaborate and luxurious baths including a frigidarium with two southern pools and an eastern swimming pool.

See also: Bishops of Londinium. Following the revolt, the Diocletian Reforms saw the British administration restructured. Londinium is universally supposed to have been the capital of one of them, but it remains unclear where the new provinces were, whether there were initially three or four in total, and whether Valentia represented a fifth province or a renaming of an older one.

From onwards, northern Britain was repeatedly attacked by Picts and Gaels. In , a large-scale attack forced the emperor Julian the Apostate to send troops to deal with the problem.

Large efforts were made to improve Londinium's defenses around the same time. At least 22 bastion towers were added to the city walls to provide platforms for ballistae [68] and the present state of the river wall suggested hurried repair work around this time.

Count Theodosius dealt with the problem over the next few years, using Londinium—then known as "Augusta"—as his base. In , Magnus Maximus organized all of the British-based troops and attempted to establish himself as Western Emperor.

The event was obviously important to the Britons, as "Macsen Wledig" would remain a major figure in Welsh folklore and several medieval Welsh dynasties claimed descent from him.

He was probably responsible for London's new church in the s or s. A new stretch of the river wall near Tower Hill seems to have been built further from the shore at some point over the next decade.

With few troops left in Britain, many Romano-British towns—including Londinium declined drastically over the next few decades.

Many of London's public buildings had fallen into disrepair by this point, and excavations of the port show signs of rapid disuse.

Trade broke down. Officials went unpaid and British troops elected their own leaders. Constantine III usurper declared himself emperor over the west and crossed the English Channel, an act considered the Roman withdrawal from Britain since the emperor Honorius subsequently directed the Britons to look to their own defence rather than send another garrison force.

Surviving accounts are scanty and mixed with Welsh and Saxon legends concerning Vortigern, Hengest and Horsa, and Ambrosius Aurelianus.

Even archaeological evidence of Londinium during this period is minimal. Despite remaining included on lists of the Roman provinces, the provinces of Britain seem to have dropped their remaining loyalties to Rome.

Archaeologists have found evidence that a small number of wealthy families continued to maintain a Roman lifestyle until the middle of the 5th century, inhabiting villas in the southeastern corner of the city.

Medieval accounts state that the invasions that established Anglo-Saxon England the Adventus Saxonum did not begin in earnest until some time in the s and s.

By the end of the 5th century, the city was largely an uninhabited ruin, [90] its large church on Tower Hill burnt to the ground.

Over the next century, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians all arrived and established tribal areas and kingdoms. The area of the Roman city was administered as part of the kingdom of the East Saxons Essex , although the Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was not within the Roman walls but to the west in Aldwych.

It was not until the Viking invasions of England that King Alfred the Great]] moved the settlement back within the safety of the Roman walls, which gave it the name Lundenburh.

The foundations of the river wall, however, were undermined over time and had completely collapsed by the 11th century.

A Romano-Celtic temple being excavated at 56 Gresham Street. Many ruins remain buried beneath London, although understanding them can be difficult.

The minimal remains from wooden structures are easy to miss and stone buildings may leave foundations, but—as with the great forum —they were often dismantled for stone during the Middle Ages and early modern period.

The first extensive archaeological review of the Roman city of London was done in the 17th century after the Great Fire of In the s, excavations by General Rivers uncovered a large number of human skulls and almost no other bones in the bed of the Walbrook.

Having battered the town's walls with Roman siege engines constructed by allied Britons, Asclepiodotus accepted Livius Gallus the commander's surrender only to have the Venedotians rush upon them, ritually decapitating them and throwing the heads into the river "Gallemborne".

The building erected at the time has since been demolished, but plans to return the temple to its former home have been blocked. Archaeologists began the first intensive excavation of the waterfront sites of Roman London in the s.

What was not found during this time has been built over making it very difficult to study or discover anything new.

From , many excavations were undertaken by the Museum of London 's Archaeology Service , although it was spun off into the separately-run MOLA in following legislation to address the Rose Theatre fiasco.

A reconstructed Roman kitchen Template under construction. Major finds from Roman London, including mosaics, wall fragments, and old buildings were formerly housed in the London and Guildhall Museums.

Museum of London Docklands , a separate branch dealing with the history of London's ports, opened on the Isle of Dogs in Other finds from Roman London continue to be held by the British Museum.

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Contents [ show ]. Main article: Wikipedia:Etymology of London. See also: Wikipedia:Roman conquest of Britain.

Main article: Wikipedia:Roman roads in Britain. Main article: Wikipedia:Boudica's Revolt. Main article: London Wall.

The identification of the " governor's palace " remains conjectural. Lives of the English Saints: St. German, Bishop of Auxerre , Ch.

X: "Britain in , A. James Toovey London , Introduction to the Study of Latin Inscriptions , p. American Book Co. Cincinnati , Template under construction.

Cadell London , The Museum of London. Retrieved on 17 February Template under construction: Provincial Capital. Roman Britain. Retrieved on 16 February British Routes.

Museum of London Group. Retrieved on 22 February Roman Roads in Britain 2nd ed. London: John Baker. Roman London: The Archaeology of London.

Abingdon: Routledge. Illustrated by John Woods. London: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. London, City of the Romans.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Museum of London Archaeology Service. Roman Britain Online. Scullard ]], From the Gracchi to Nero , , p.

Date accessed: 26 December Retrieved on 19 February The Story of Civilization, volume 3: Caesar and Christ.

Simon and Schuster. Cambridge University Press. City of Sin: London in Pursuit of Pleasure. Mais acessados. Todos Rock Gospel Sertanejo Mais.

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Over the following centuries, what remained of the city ruins would reside in the territory of the Kingdom of the East Saxons — Essex, but the Saxon settlement of Lundenwic developed west of the Roman ruins in modern-day Covent Garden.

It would not be until the Viking invasions during the reign of King Alfred the Great, that Londinium would once again be repopulated, taking advantage of the Roman walls that were still standing.

The city now became known as Lundenburg, marking the beginning of the continuous history of the City of London.

Header Image Credit : Carole Raddato. HeritageDaily is a dedicated, independent publisher of the latest research and discoveries from across the academic community with a focus on archaeology, anthropology, palaeoanthropology and palaeontology.

Sign in. Log into your account. Password recovery. Londinium — Roman London. Related Articles.

Read more. Trimontium is Roman fort complex located in Newstead on the Scottish Borders. Londinium is the name given to the Roman city, now occupied by the City of London that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London.

By HeritageDaily. June 6, More on this topic. Next article The Great Tornado of London. Natural History. I come alive outside the M25 I won't drink the poison Thames I'll chase the sun out west.

Euston, Paddington, train station please Make the red lights turn green endlessly My black cab rolls through the neon disease Endlessly, endlessly.

Em alta:. Londinium Catatonia. Compartilhar no Facebook Compartilhar no Twitter. London never sleeps, it just sucks the life out of me and the money from my pocket London always creeps, showbiz hugs the life out of me have some dignity honey Euston, Paddington, train station please make the red lights turn green endlessly My black cab rolls through the neon disease Endlessly, endlessly London never sleeps, it just sucks the life out of me Have some dignity honey Sushi bars, wet fish, it just sucks the life out of me and the money from my pocket Euston, Paddington, train station please make the red lights turn green endlessly My black cab rolls through the neon disease Endlessly, endlessly I come alive outside the M25 I won't drink the poison Thames I'll chase the sun out west Londinium Euston, Paddington, train station please Make the red lights turn green endlessly My black cab rolls through the neon disease Endlessly, endlessly I come alive I come alive.

Nos avise. Viu algum erro? Recomendar Twitter. In the year 60 or 61, the rebellion of the Iceni under Boudica forced the garrison to abandon the settlement, which was then razed.

Following the Iceni's defeat at the Battle of Watling Street , the city was rebuilt as a planned Roman town and recovered within about a decade.

During the later decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly and quickly became Great Britain 's largest city.

By the turn of the century, Londinium had grown to about 60, people and almost certainly replaced Camulodunum Colchester as the provincial capital.

During the 2nd century , Londinium was at its height. At the time, its forum and basilica were the largest north of the Alps.

Emperor Hadrian visited in Excavations have discovered evidence of a major fire which destroyed most of the city shortly thereafter, but the city was again rebuilt.

In the second half of the 2nd century, Londinium appears to have shrunk in both size and population.

Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, it appears never to have recovered fully from this slump, as archaeologists have found that much of the city after this date was covered in dark earth , which remained undisturbed for centuries.

Some time between and , the Romans built a defensive wall around the landward side of the city. Along with Hadrian's Wall and the road network, this wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain.

The London Wall survived for another 1, years and broadly continues to define the perimeter of the old City of London.

The etymology of the name Londinium is unknown. Following Geoffrey of Monmouth 's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain , it was long derived from an eponymous founder named Lud , son of Heli.

There is no evidence such a figure ever existed. However, the Roman Londinium was not the immediate source of English "London" , as i -mutation would have caused the name to have Lyndon.

This suggests an alternative Brittonic form Londonion ; [6] alternatively, the local pronunciation in British Latin may have changed the pronunciation of Londinium to Lundeiniu or Lundein , which would also have avoided i -mutation in Old English.

A map of Roman Britain [11]. The site guarded the Romans' bridgehead on the north bank of the Thames and a major road nexus.

Just prior to the Roman conquest, the area had been contested by the Catuvellauni based to its west and the Trinovantes based to its east; it bordered the realm of the Cantiaci on the south bank of the Thames.

The Roman city ultimately covered at least the area of the City of London , whose boundaries are largely defined by its former wall.

Londinium's waterfront on the Thames ran from around Ludgate Hill in the west to the present site of the Tower in the east, around 1 mile.

The northern wall reached Bishopsgate and Cripplegate near the Museum of London , a course now marked by the street "London Wall".

Cemeteries and suburbs existed outside the city proper. A round temple has been located west of the city, although its dedication remains unclear.

The status of Londinium is uncertain. It seems to have been founded as a mere vicus and remained as such even after its recovery from Boudica's revolt.

Merrifield, p. Ptolemy lists it as one of the cities of the Cantiacs, but Durovernum Roman Canterbury was their civitas. Starting as a small fort guarding the northern end of the new bridge across the River Thames, Londinium grew to become an important port for trade between Britain and the Roman provinces on the continent.

The initial lack of private Roman villas plentiful elsewhere suggests military or even Imperial ownership.

Tacitus wrote that, at the time of the uprising of Boudica, "Londinium By this time, Britain's provincial administration had also almost certainly been moved to Londinium from Camulodunum Colchester in Essex.

The precise date of this change is unknown and no surviving source explicitly states that Londinium was "the capital of Britain" but there are several strong indications of this status: 2nd-century roofing tiles have been found marked by the "Procurator" or "Publican of the Roman province of Britain at Londinium", [17] the remains of a Roman governor's palace and tombstones belonging to the governor's staff have been discovered, and the city was well defended and armed, with a new military camp erected at the beginning of the 2nd century, despite being far from any frontier.

Before the arrival of the Roman legions , the area was almost certainly lightly rolling open countryside traversed by numerous streams now underground.

No major Celtic settlement has been found at the site, but the city's Latin name now seems to have derived from an originally Brittonic one and artifacts have been found showing that the hills of the London were frequented if not inhabited by small villages.

Londinium grew up around the point on the River Thames narrow enough for the construction of a Roman bridge but still deep enough to handle the era's seagoing ships.

Some Claudian -era camp ditches have been discovered, [26] but archaeological excavations undertaken since the s by the Department of Urban Archaeology at the Museum of London now MOLAS have suggested the early settlement was largely the product of private enterprise.

Following its foundation in the mid-1st century, early Roman London occupied a relatively small area, about acres or roughly the area of present-day Hyde Park.

Archaeologists have uncovered numerous goods imported from across the Roman Empire in this period, suggesting that early Roman London was a highly cosmopolitan community of merchants from across the Empire and that local markets existed for such objects.

Of the fifteen British routes recorded in the 2nd- or 3rd-century Antonine Itinerary , seven ran to or from Londinium. It was customary elsewhere to name roads after the emperor during whose principate they were completed, but the number and vicinity of routes completed during the time of Claudius would seem to have made this impractical in Britain's case.

The road from the Kentish ports of Rutupiae Richborough , Dubris Dover , and Lemanis Lympne via Durovernum Canterbury seems to have first crossed the Thames at a natural ford near Westminster before being diverted north to the new bridge at London.

The Devil's Highway connected Londinium to Calleva Silchester and its roads to points west over the bridges near modern Staines.

A minor road led southwest to the city's main cemetery and the old routes to the ford at Westminster. Stane Street to Noviomagus Chichester did not reach Londinium proper but ran from the bridgehead in the southern suburb at Southwark.

These roads varied from metres wide. After reconstruction in the AD60s, the streets within Londinium itself largely adhered to a grid.

By analogy with Roman forts , the main east-west street is now generally called the Via Decumana [40] "Tenth Cohort Way" , [41] while the main north-south street interrupted by the forum north of its intersection with the Via Decumana is known as the Via Principalis "Headquarters Way".

The main streets were metres wide, while side streets were usually about 5 metres wide. In the year 60 or 61, a little more than ten years after Londinium was founded, the king of the Iceni died.

He had possibly been installed by the Romans after the Iceni 's failed revolt against P. His will had divided his wealth and lands between Rome and his two daughters, but Roman law forbade female inheritance and it had become common practice to treat allied kingdoms as life estates which were annexed upon the ruler's death, as had occurred in Bithynia [42] and Galatia.

Tacitus records that, when the king's wife Boudicca objected, the Romans flogged her, raped her two daughters, and enslaved their nobles and kinsmen.

The 9th Legion under Q. Petillius Cerialis , coming south from the Fosse Way , was ambushed and annihilated. The procurator , meanwhile, escaped with his treasure to Gaul , probably via Londinium.

Suetonius Paulinus had been leading the 14th and 20th Legions in the invasion of Anglesey now known as the Menai massacre ; hearing of the rising, he immediately returned along Watling Street with the legions' cavalry.

Eventually, his numerical inferiority—and the price only too clearly paid by the divisional commander 's rashness—decided him to sacrifice the single city of Londinium to save the province as a whole.

Unmoved by lamentations and appeals, Suetonius gave the signal for departure. The inhabitants were allowed to accompany him.

But those who stayed because they were women, or old, or attached to the place, were slaughtered by the enemy. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire in the form of a layer of red ash beneath the city at this date.

Suetonius then returned to the legions' slower infantry, who met and defeated the British army, slaughtering as many as 70, men and camp followers.

A model of London in 85—90 on display in the Museum of London , depicting the first bridge over the Thames.

After being sacked, the city was rebuilt as a planned Roman town , its streets generally adhering to a grid skewed by major roads passing from the bridgehead and by changes in alignment produced by crossings over the local streams.

A fortified enclosure was erected at Plantation Place on Cornhill. It formed the north side of the forum, whose south entrance was located along the north side of the intersection of the present Gracechurch , Lombard , and Fenchurch Streets.

The first forum in Londinium seems to have had a full temple, but placed outside just west of the forum. During the later decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly and quickly became Roman Britain's largest city, although most of its houses continued to be made of wood.

By the turn of the century, Londinium was perhaps as large as 60, people [52] [53] and had replaced Camulodunum Colchester as the provincial capital.

A large building discovered near Cannon Street Station has had its foundation dated to this era and is assumed to have been the gubernatorial palace ; it boasted a garden, pools, and several large halls, some of which were decorated with mosaic floors.

Part of the structure, perhaps a portion of the main entrance, is speculated to be the origin of the London Stone. Another site dating to this era is the bathhouse at Huggin Hill, which remained in use until its demolition around the year Brothels were legal but taxed.

A diagram of the Roman structures from the port of Londinium Template under construction. The bulk of the Roman port was quickly rebuilt after Boudicca's rebellion [56] when the waterfront was extended with gravel to permit a sturdy wharf to be built perpendicular to the shore.

The port was built in four sections, starting upstream of the London Bridge and working down towards the Walbrook at the centre of Londinium.

Expansion of the flourishing port continued into the 3rd century. Scraps of armour , leather straps, and military stamps on building timbers suggest that the site was constructed by the city's legionaries.

A bronze head of Hadrian found in London British Museum. The impressive public buildings from around this period may have been initially constructed in preparation for his visit or during the rebuilding which followed the "Hadrianic Fire".

This fire, which archaeologists have discovered destroyed much of the city, is not recorded by any surviving source and seems to have occurred in a time of relative calm in Britain; for those reasons, it is generally assumed to have been accidental.

A model of the expanded forum at the Museum of London. During the early 2nd century, Londinium was at its height.

London recovered from the fire and again had between 45, and 60, inhabitants around the year , with many more stone houses and public buildings erected.

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Maulkis says:

Von sich aus wird es verstanden.

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